Fars Province also known as Pars or Persia in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country. It is in the south of the country, in Iran’s and its administrative center is Shiraz. The etymology of the word Persian, found in many ancient names associated with Iran, is derived from the historical importance of this region.Fars Province is the original homeland of the Persian people.
The Fars Province is home to many higher education institutes and universities. The main universities of the province include Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz University of Technology and Islamic Azad University of Shiraz.
Karst erosion in rims of valley creats a very beautiful and worth seeing natural scene. Valley has 40m width and its height is about 100m. This strait is one of the interesting places in Fars province and has significant tourism capability.
In vicinity of strait a epograph of Sassanian era is seen. Another attractivenesses of this region is Mollasadrsa lake. Due to cold climate and mountainous status of this region, spring and summer are the best seasons to visit this place.
Pasgard was the first capital city of Achaemenids in Iran. This city founded by Great cyrus (second cyrus) in 546 B.C. this complex is consisted of relics such as Great cyrus's tomb, Cambyses's tomb, gate palace, levee palace, private palace, royal garden of Pasargad, Tel throne which is a sacred distrinct and registered as sixth world registered monument of Iran in UNESCO list in July 2004 . Although, Pasargad in comparision to TakhteJamshid has lesser gratness and most of it’s parts are demolished, but this place has graet importance because has been first capitadel city of Achaemedians.
At cambyses era who was son of curus, Pasargad was Achaemedians capital city and after Cambyses at Dariush region it ttransfered to Takhte Jamshid. Style of pasargad's architecture is the same architecture of TakhteJamshid. Cyrus tomb: the most important monument of this complex is Cyrus tomb. This tomb is constructed by using lime stones of Seivand quarry. These huge rocks are connected by iron and plumb dovetail clamps. Form of structure is rectangular with 6 steps assembled around the tomb and ascends in form of pyramid. At top of starircase, chamber of tomb is located where it’s dimensions are 17.2 x 11.9 at 5.3m height. There was a stone door at entrance of this chamber which is not available now. This tomb was looted at Alexander invasion. Many years ago people believed that, the tomb belongs to Solmon messenger's mother and because of this belief, the tomb left intact after Arabs invasion. In 1820A.H. after archeological excavations the identity of tomb's real owner was revealed. This tomb has notable importance and sacredness for people of this region and all public of Fars province. Another relics of Pasargad complex is tomb of Cambyses who was son of great Cyrus and was king of Achaemedians for a short period after Cyrus. Of this structure there left only a barrier with approximate height of 14m and length of 7.5 meters. Considering appearance of this wall, there are similarities with Zoroaster Kaaba in Naghsh Rostam complex, but it’s older than relic. However, there are different and several views about this structure. Some believe it was a sun dial and some stated that to be a fire temple. This building also in some periods is called Solmon prison. Gate palace: this palace is located at southeastern part of plain and somehow is accounted as gate of Pasargad. Area of this palace is 726m2 and there are 8 columns in it’s 542 m2 hall with heights of 16m. Main part of this relic is an embossed image of a barbed face man with four wings on stone who faces to center of structure. This man has a crown which is completely connected to a seamed hat that is completely adhered to man's head. Major part of this crown is consisted of three clusters of reed flower where each of them has sun ball on its top and surrounded by ostrich features. Levee palace: it’s located at distant of 1250m from Cyrus's tomb and is known as single column or columnar palace, because only one of it’s high rise columns has left. This palace was a huge par lour in 35.32 x 14.22m and 8 columns with height of 18m. There were four porches around this hall. Three portals with embossed patterns are left of this palace. Cyrus private palace: it’s another relies of this complex where is located at 230m from levee palace and has features of a private or living palace. According to experts, this palace has been built at great Cyrus era and its embellishments are assigned to Darius period. Dimensions of this palace are 42 x 76m, where it has a central parlour, 2 porches at west and east and also 2 open air courtyards at north and east of structure. This palace is accounted as the largest structure in Pasargad complex. There are floor stones and some columns with height of 1.90 left of this palace. Garden: also is an important part in this complex. At the time of glory and greatness of Pasargasd, the whole complex was placed within a large garden. It’s said that Pasargad 's garden is model and mother of all Iranian gardens. Iranian gardens which are registered in UNESCO list as thirteenth relic of Iran includes Pasargad's garden. However, currently there is not any trace of trees but irrigation system of this garden demonstrates a large garden at that period of history. Water entered wide streams from Polour River and irrigated whole garden by channels which remaining of them are visible. Maybe the last beauty of this garden has been seen at Macedonian Alexander era. Tol Takht fortifications These fortifications are located at heights which overlook Pasargad complex. Relic of huge stone barrier of this wide platform with 2 hectares area can be seen. According to experts this vast platform has been considered by Cyrus in order to construct a great complex similar to Takhhte Jamshid but after demise of Cyrus, location of constructing Parse complex (Takhte Jamshid) shifted to current district and Tol Takht used as a watch fortification by order of Dariush.
Height of this waterfall is about 60m and has width of about 60m and has width of about 90m. Regarding water level and volume it’s near scores of Shoy waterfall in Khuzestan province. One of the interesting points about this waterfall is non existence of any river at upper location of this waterfall and its water is maintained by many springs which are inside mountain and are not exposed.
Number of these spring is not known and are spread at any place within mountain stones. Because of same reason, width of waterfall also changes in different seasons of a year. Springs of this waterfall actually are source of river. Sepidan or Ardekan is located at northwest of Fars province in proximity to Kohguiloyeh province and this waterfall is inside Margo on waterfall protected zone and is considered as an important attractiveness of this region. The protected zone has area of 3501 hectare. Fauna species of this zone are fox, squirrel, partridge, khaki partridge and sparrow like birds. Flora species are some types of turpentine trees, almond, oak, acer, ash tree and milk vetch. There are asphalt road up to 1 km distance from waterfall and parking lots, also hiking track also are developed. It has easy access and welfare facilities to be a public recreational place.
This strait is located at vicinity of two provinces of Fars and Kohgiloyeh border line. One of the branches of Bashar river is flowing through this strait and make this place a beautiful natural environment. Vegetations coverage of this region are wild pistachio, peanut, oak and willow.
This is a recreational place where has suitable facilities and most people spend their pleasure time in spring and summer within this environment. Province’s Helal Ahmar organization also prepared required facilities makes night residence possible.
distance of this Barm or swamp to Shiraz is 60 km. It’s a swamp full of water in Shesh Peer region with fresh wholesome water. Water of this swamp is maintained by Shesh Peer spring. Around this location are jungle coverage and natural scenes where also is an agreeable place for recreation and fishing the best season to vist this regioin is spring and summer.
Because of it’s water quality a mineral factory produce bottled mineral water under brand of "Shesh Peer” from this spring’s water.
Hafez is great poet of Iran whose book is second the most published text after Quran. This poet came from this place and was born in 726A.H. and studied in Persian literature, Arabic language and literature and rational sciences. He was one of the most passionate poets of his time and due to his unique style in his amorous, Gnostic poems was under blame by some people.
He demised in 791 A.H. when some prejudiced people even was opposed him to be buried in Moslems cemetery and until sixty years, thee was only a simple stone on his burial place where after these years a domed tomb was constructed at his burial location. But, Hafez's tomb was basically was erected at Zandieh era by order of Karim khan Zand and in Qajar region also some changes applied on this structure. Current structure of Hafez's tomb was designed by Andre Goddard French architect in 1311 S.H. where has a very beautiful adoption with it’s previous architecture.
Sheikh Mushrefoldeen whose num de plum is Saadi is Iran's sweet spoken poet who was born in 606A.H. in Shiraz city. He was of a popular and distinct family and passed his scientific degree in Nezamieh school of Baghdad city of forty years spent in traveling and thinking, then returned to Shiraz. He composed two books of Golestan and Boston names as his presents from travels. His advices and comments in these books is undoubtedly masterpieces of Persian language's literatures.
He demised in 695 A.H. and 5 years later the first tomb was constructed on his burial location where it said was ruined by earthquake and again at Zandieh era by order of KarimKhan Zand his tomb has been repaired. Current tomb of this great poet is repaired in 1331 S.H. main structure has two high arches with eight columns where there is a pond in front of that. Atorquise colored dome is built at top of the tomb and it’s walls are embellished with Saadi's poem. There is a traditional tea house in this garden.
This tomb is burial of Ahmad bin Mousa, brother of Imam Reza (PBUH). Ahmad bin Mousa is one of the sons of Imam Mousa Kazem who had high popularity in Iran and arrived Iran when Imam Reza (PBUH) came to this country to become crown prince of Maammon in Khorrassan province. After poisoning Imam Reza (PBUH) in Khorrassan, his family and supporters also have been murdered one by one.
Ahmad bin Mousa was in Shiraz and martyr three and noone has had any information of his burial location for many years. After finding a ring with his name embossed on that his identity was revealed and in sixth century, a tomb was built for him. The building however has been rebuilt or repaired many time by heritable people and his supporters. in 1242A.H. silver chamber of tomb was presented by Fathali Shah Qajar and at the same time mirror works were implemented inside lattice chamber, however after that some damages applied on this structure due to earthquake and once again was repaired by charitable people. Beside this tomb there are some buildings such as museum, bazaar and library.
This bazaar as it’s name induces is one of the buildings of Zandiyeh in 1179A.H. Bazaar consists of two main and derived passage ways where cross each other at a circle. Main passage way is longer having arch shaped ceiling. There are totally 180 shops in this bazaar where goods such as cloth, handicraft, carpet are supplied. Similar to all Iran's historical bazaars, in this bazaar also where goodsa such as cloth, handicraft, carpet are supplied. Similar to all Iran's historicalbazaars in this bazaar also caravanserai barn and godowns are existed.
Amongst it caravanserais, it can be pointed to Moshir caravanserai, Ahmadief caravanserai, along the Vakil bazaar, there is Nou bazaar where is built at Qajar era. This bazaar is very similar to Bazaar Vakil in architecture and type of embellishment regards.
Distance of this place to Takhte Jamshid is about 10 km and those who intent to visit Takhte Jamshid can also enlisted this location in their one day sight seeing program. This place mostly has been used to bury figures of dynasty at Achaemenid era, figures such as first Xerxes, great Dariush, first Artaxerexs and second Dariush. However, there are some embossed patterns from Sassanian and Ilamian era.
These embossed images on mountain surface have an important role in history where in addition to beauty and glory, recalls historical events and after all these years remains safe. One of the most important patterns is coronation of Nerssy who was son of Shapour in 295A.D. another interesting and important embossed images are scenes of second Bahram and third Bahram, Shapour's victory over Valerine emperor of Rome, second Hormuz battle and scene of second Shapour's battle. There is another structure in this district where is called Zoroaster's Kaaba and many complicated unclear issue are nested in it’s primary application. It’s stated to be fire temple, a place to show spring time called sun dial, a place to preserve precious item and even tomb of Goshtasb who was father of Dariusmbut proof of evidence is required many excavations and many a time maybe not possible.
Distance of this place to Takhte Jamshid was 3 km and this location also can be visited in a single program with Takhte Jamshid. In place also embossed historical pattern and images from Sassanian era are shown. This patterns are carved on stone surface at an space smaller than Naghshe Rostam on the core of Mehr mountain
These patterns, by considering their texts include first Shapour coronation. Babakan Artaxerexes coronation image of Krtir one of the famous Zoroasterian priests in Sassanian era and a pattern of first Shapour and his courtiers.
Area of lake is more than 20 hectare. Depth of this lake is not notable and is classified in swamps ranking. Water of lake is salty and undrinkable, lake’s water is used for extracting common salt.
It’s region is suitable biosphere for migrating birds in winter time. Birds are such as ducks, geese and flamingoes.
This is a region with mountains, hill, dales and area of 48 thousand hectare. The region has very diversified ecosystem and different fuana and flora species. Amongst the most important flora species are, haw thron, almond, fig, milk vetch, fritillaria, iris and origan. Important fauna species are gizelle, ewe, ram, goat and deer, leopard, hyena, wolf, bearded volture, griffin, golden eagle, khaki partridge and partridge.
Vicinity of this region to Shiraz is an advantage. However, visiting this region also like all national parks need to obtain entrance permission before visit. This national palrk has also natural history museum.
It has very temperate climate, thick jungle, abundant water flow and welfare facilities where is very popular. This jungle region has vegetation coverage of wild pistachio and peanut. Desired coverage of trees and plants in Zagross mountains range develop a pleasant climate and beautiful natural scenes where it’s called lost paradise. Another attractiveness of this region’s surroundings is Doroodzan dam on the way to Kam firooz city.
After Kamfirooz the route leads to Boragh Tang where is another natural attractiveness of Fars province. Fauna species of Bostanak Tang protected zone are ewe, ram, goat and deer, brown bear,stone sable, wolf, fox, partridge and Khaki partridge.
Bishapour is an ancient city with 200 hectare area where it’s oldness returns to Sassanian era. This city has been located on the way from Estakhr to Tisfoon and had great importance. This city was constructed in 244 A.D. by order of first Shapour in memory of his triumph over Rome hosts.however. It’s probable that the people was residential before Shapour era andnsome found relics which belong to Ilamian period are evidence to this claim. This city has observed civil engineering principles and had two main avenue in north to south and east to west directions.
Four gates were entrance ways of city. The dais of city was located at least side of that.
Girl castle: this castle was built outside of city for city protection and security. Today only some ruins of this castle is left and visit of this era and was residential till seventh century A.H. then it has been deserted. Anahita temple: this is the most important part of Bishapour city. Anahita is one of the sacred Goddess of ancient period. In Iran and Goddess of delivery pure and fresh water to earth who was responsible of flowing rivers and seas. This temple is constructed in cubic form where each of its side was 14m and located 6m lower than ground level to enable water of Shapour river to flow within temple. Inspired by Achaemenids architecture, this temple has been constructed by placing huged cut stones next to eachother without using mortar. Stones are connected with dovetail clamps. Temple has a central parlour where four corridors are developed to let water flows. Water enters through corridors and after termination of ritual exits. There has been a track from Shapour palace to Anahita temple which suggests that some rituals was held private for king. This temple is considered as the parts which have not been ruined where has high importance another attractive nesses of vicinity to this city are Shapour cave and Polo strait where at a single route to be visited in one day program.
This complex is assigned to palaces which their Darius. Area of this complex where is located on a huge stone bench is 125 thousand square meters. Since capital city of A chaemenids was in Shoush city and Ekbatan and Babbel are also were assigned as summer and winter capital cities respectively. Construction of this complex continued at Xerxes era who was Dariush's son and also at first Artaxerxes region and took about 150 years to be completed.
This complex is consisted of palaces, portals, king's tomb, large embossed patterns and stairways complex is made of lime stones in different colors as Achaemenid buildings had been developed. In this architectural school huge stones are placed next to each other without using any mortar, these stones mainly are connected together with clamps. Takhte Jamshid is the third registered world's relic in Iran. This complex in October 25th,1979 (1358S.H.) was registered as world's heritage of UNESCO. The most important parts of Takhte Jamshid are as following: this complex begin with entrance stairway which is double sided stairway and each of sides ascends with a 1800 twist. Total scores of both sides’ s tairs are 111 steps, each with 10 cm height.
Nation's portal: this structure is located at east side of entrance stairway and is a palace with very large par lour with 16.5m height and three main doors. West door is lead to stairway east door is lead to march avenue and south door is lead to Apadana palace, this part was constructed at Xerxes era and used as waiting hall for guests.
Apadana: it’s the palace of public levee, where is the most important component of Takhte Jamshid. This palace is located at south part of Nation portal palace and its construction started by order of Darius and terminated at Xerxes era. Central par lour of this palace has 36 stone columns each has 19m height. Three porches have been located at west, north and east side of this par lour.
Tachar palace: Or king's private palace where has been consisted of a central par lour with twelve wooden columns and some rooms around this main structure. Plied delicay in making this palace was so significant that palace is called mirror hall.
Hadish palace: this was Xerxes private palace and located at south region of complex. It’s quoted that big fire has been started from this location and there is not any relic of this palace's columns and plinths and nearly completely ruined. Three gate palace: where also recalled "council par lour" and experts believe that space of this palace was specified for assembly of king and government authorities. This palace has been placed at center of Takhe Jamshid and it’s central par lour has 4 columns. Capital of these columns is made of two oxen in opposite each other.
Khazaneh: where is consisted of several par lours and a number of courtyards and are separated from other parts of complex by a wall. This structure is the oldest part of Takhte Jamshid where many invaluable items has been discovered here which was remaining of Macedonian Alexander.
Hundred column palace: after Apanda palace is the largest palace of Takhte Jamshid. Construction of this palace started at Xerxes era and was completed at First Artaxerxes time. Central par lour of this palace is consisted of hundred columns of 14m height.
Uncompleted portal: this structure is located at north part of Takhte Jamshid complex and it has never been completed, because of possibility to obtain useful information about placement and fixture of stones it has valuable and significant importance.
Tombs: are located in eastern part of complex and at the foot of mountain. Tombs are belonged to Artaxerxes second and Artaxerxes third who were two Archaemenid kings. Construction's style of these tombs is similar to Naghshe Rota's tomb style. The complex of Takhte Jamshid has been put on fire by Macedonian Alexander intentionally or accidentally in 331 B.C. where a major part of this complex is completely vanished. The remaining relics suggest glory and greatness of complex at it’s splendour era. There are discovered many mud epigraphs from this period of history which demonstrate glory and significance of Achaemenid era in Persia. These epigraphs however are small in size and have brief texts. But, because of their contents has very high value. These texts state that at that time of construction Takhte Jamshid all workers has been paid wages, salary, of men and women were equal, women could work full time or choose part time occupations, women also have right to heir, mothers have delivery time wage and children are unders social security protections, these human rights was very invaluable in 500 years B.C.