Golestan is located in the north-east of the country south of the Caspian Sea. Its capital is Gorgan. Majority of its population are Shia Muslims, and minority are Sunni Muslims. Golestan was split off from the province of Mazandaran in 1997. Human settlements in this area date back to 10 000 BCE . Evidence of the ancient city of Jorjan can still be seen near the current city of Gonbad-e Kavus. It was an important city of Persia located on the Silk Road . Under the Achaemenid Iran , it seems to have been administered as a sub-province of Parthia and is not named separately in the provincial lists of Darius and Xerxes . The Hyrcanians , however , under the leadership of Megapanus , are mentioned by Herodotus in his list of Xerxes’ army during the invasion of Greece.
This village is 26m lower than sea level. In Qajar era Agha Mohammad Khan region, Russian set to occupy Mian Kaleh penninsula in Caspian Sea establish a base in Behshahr city, but Agha Mohammad Khan disagreed definitely. However, they built a tower nearby strait of peninsula and finally expelled from Mian Kaleh and Ashoradeh by order of Shah. At Mohammad Shah governorship. Russians were allowed to establish residential commercial facilities and even erect military fortifications in Astarabad, Bandar Torkman islands of Ashoradeh.
Finally after corruption of Czar reign and beginning of soviet government. Ashoradeh was evacuated. In this place, 1000 persons have lived since 1372, but by shift of Caspian Sea water toward land, this place was abandoned and currently has not any residents only Fishery offices’ personnel stay there. Relics of two historic structures of Russians’ castle and house of Russian attaché are in these islands. Russian's castle is and abandoned military fort where belongs to Czar Russia and also known as Sartak or Sartook castle. Area of this castle is 600 and is the only castle which its tower and rampart and brick made walls at north part beside abandoned village of Ashooradeh is remained. It has three watch towers and an entrance gate with some chambers. Building materials of these structures are brick and mortar of lime and ash or stone Sarooj. This castle still is repairable and capable to be revamped. There is Fishery office restaurant for public which serving sea food.
Area of this park is 109 hectares and because of it’s location at northern range of middle Alborz Mountains, it generally has Caspian temperate climate. The park has flora diversities such as zelkova, parrotia, thymos, tilia, maple, raspberry, and hawthorn, there are residential facilities for tourists in this park. An important attractiveness inside this park is Kaboodwall waterfall.
This moss covered waterfall has potable water where it’s origin is a spring at upper level of waterfall. This waterfall is one of the most important recreational places in province. On the way to reach overlooks Katalam city. Only barriers supporting towers of this castle remained and it’s probable to have military functionality. Access path to top of the castle is possible through 300 steps that have been developed. Stairway of this castle passes through jungle and is very beautiful and enjoyable. Of other excellent features of this place is view of sea Katalam city from top of the castle. This relic has been registered in Iran’s national relics list.
Makhtoomgholi Faraghi is one of the greatest literate’s preachers in Torkman language who was born in 1153 A.H. in a place called Gharrigharlli near Haji Ghooshan village of Gonbad Kavoos. His father, Dowlat Mohammad also was a great poet and knowledgement people of his era and has books such as free speech, worship and lyric poems, quatrains and satirical poems as his memorials. Makhtoomgholi poets are composed in different matters such as Gnostic, moral, social epic.
He is a humanity poet his poems are in a simple and eloquent language, many of his verses become proverbs amongst people or Turkman singers recite those with company of instruments such as tar arch tar in ceremonies and wedding parties. Because of this cultural position, Makhtoomgholi has many supporters in all classes of society and not only Iran’s Turkman but also Turkmenistan people and even non Turkmens are his fan. In 16th may of every year when is birthday of this great figure, many people travel to this place in order to participate in his memorial ceremony which is held beside of his tomb.
This park with 87 thousands hectares is located between provinces of Golestan North Khorrassan a small part of that also extends to Semnan province and is one of the oldest national parks of Iran and also one of the reserved biospheres of UNESCO. One of the main route to access Razavi Khorrassan province Meshed city passes through this park where it starts from Tangrah village and expanded to Dasht Momass village.
Diversity of vegetation coverage and wildlife is unique in this park where the important species amongst more than 1400 species of only flora are acorn, thymos, parrotia, populua, acer, barberry and juniper Important fauna species also are antelope, Roe deer, gizelle, ewe ram, urial moutlon, goat capra, brown bear, panther, wild cat and pallas's cat. Meanwhile, this region is one of suitable location for bird watching and diversity of birds species is notable. Different kinds of warblers, species of finches, different kinds of touka, ordinary and black vultures and also beared vulture are recreational facilities and two museum of wildlife available in this park.
Since Deraznow village has temperate climate, beautiful natural sceneries, steppe regions, thus gets a unique position in residential mountainous regions of province. Jahannamma village also because of it’s location at limits of Jahannamma protected zone has unique natural features.
Flora species of this region include oak, thymos, wychelm, tilia, taxus, juniper and many pasture vegetations and it’s fauna species are gizell, roe deer, bear, panther, wolf, lynx, snow cock, pheasant.
This building has been constructed by order of Reza Shah in 1317 to be one of the royal palaces. In 1343, after discovery of some relics from ancient hills of this region, function of it changed when after repair has become museum. This is a two storey structure in European style with area of 530 at each floor. This palace museum is twenty forth museum of country first museum of northern part of country. However, this museum closed for some time in 1361 S.H. also used as a library, but in 1384 S.H. again delivered to cultural heritage organization after repair reopened.
At first floor, there are celebritie's hall statues of 30 famous figures of Golestan province from third century A.H. up to Pahlavi era are exhibited while at upper floor, more than 100 items of utensils and belonging of Pahlavi era are exposed. This building was registered in Iran’s national relics list in 1336 S.H. Museum is closed on Mondays and is opened on other days of week from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. for interested people’s visit.
This ancient hill consisted of some raised areas of land where are near each other has thousands of years oldness and are of the most ancient hills of Iran. There are some relics of Neolithic period, Achaemenian, Sassanian and after Islam era which were discovered in these hills. Discovered earthenware in these hills belong to prehistory and early Neolithic periods.
This earthenware has some ornamental patterns inside outside their surfaces. At the west side of hill, there is a weird to conduct water for villages’ farms.
Length of this barrier wall is 197 km and it’s width is 2m. Oldness of this structure returns Firooz, the King of Sassanian era it’s construction terminated at late period of Sassanian era. Regarding structure and fortifications was more developed than China great wall considering length is third longest defensive barrier in the world. Some experts believe that the reason of establishing such a barrier wall might be preventing some migrating tribes who named Heptalli because of their nature of tribal life sometimes invade northern territory lines of Iran in order to find better pastures.
Barrier is made of sun dried brick and brick where it has 38 castles that so far have been discovered on it’s length. The best point to observe this barrier is a place called Kollaleh in Gonbad Kavoos city. This relic has a pending file in UNESCO to be completed for registration.
This tower was erected in 375 S.H. by order of Ghaboos Bin Woshmgir the most famous King of Al Ziar dynasty who were governors of Gorgan city. Dome or tower of Ghaboos has 70m height height of tower is 55m and height of it’s hill is 15m from ground level is the tallest brick build structure in the world. Building is constructed in form of a polygonal cylinder by yellow colored bricks where has 9.6 m thickness.
Applied materials in it’s structure are brick and mortar of lime and sand Sarooj or ash. It’s architectural style is Razi. One of distinct features of Razi style in architecture is using the best possible quality of bricks. This relics has probably been memory building or tomb of Qhaboos. This is fifteenth registered of Iran in UNESCO world list.