Hamedan (or Hamadan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. Hamedan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities and one of the oldest in the world. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE. Hamadan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level. The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 kilometres (220 miles) southwest of Tehran. The main symbols of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument and the Baba Taher monument. The majority of the population is Persian; however, there is a considerable Azerbaijani minority.
Oldness of this ancient region returns to median era, where also was used in Achaemenid Parthian era. Three historical layers were identified in excavations of 1346 S.H. Noushijan citadel is one of the important temples of Madian. The complex which is relate to Madian in this site is consisted of chambers, stores, west fire temple central fire temple, columnar parlor, fort’s barrier tunnel where all of these structures are made of raw bricks of standard 22 × 40 cm dimensions thickness of 12 cm.
This ancient relic has permanent base and visitors can use staff guides instructions. This structure has been registered in Iran’s national relics in 1346 S.H.
Oldness of this structure returns to Qajar era. Founder of this place is one of the charitable figures of city names late Haj Mirza Mohammad Taghi and this hammam are known after his son’s name. It includes two parts for men women twin structures and has beautiful architectural form, moldings paintings. Currently, this place is become anthropology museum.
One of it’s interesting parts is demonstration of applying henna on human’s body as Iranian tradition. This structure is registered in Iran’s national relics list in 1355 S.H.
These mountains are parallel to Zagross mountains range. Flux of this spring is very high and accounted as water filled springs it’s water is used for drinking and agricultural purposes in this region it’s overflow pours into Gammaciab River. Around this point, is a forest with area of 100 hectares where encompasses trees such as oak, plane, how thorn glosbe, walnut, willow, ash tree, wild plum, nettle, damson, grapes fig, fraxinus excelsior, pear wild almond. Area of large forest is 310 hectare and the most important trees of this region are oak plane tree. At beside of Gian village, there is ancient hill of Gian where many ancient items have been discovered in this place which is preserved in national museum. This region is of important centers of tourism.
Harrireh ancient city: at north part of island, inside an area of 120 hectares, remnants of an old city are notable which has remarks of prevalence of this island at previous periods of history.
Kariz underground city: considering oldness of Kish Island, subterranean waters had a major role in maintaining resident’s water needs water systems. One of these water supplies where is repaired and prepared to be visited by public as a recreational seeable complex is this underground city. Temperature of inside city’s tunnels is between c to c all around the year. Greek ship: it’s a stranded ship which is in this location from 1345 S.H. and makes a beautiful image in front of interested people’s eyes. Traditional cistern: This cistern has been constructed in 1372 S.H. by observing traditional architectural designs patterns and using 5 winds traps at vicinity, of Harrireh city. Particular architecture of this structure is very seeable interesting for tourists. There are required facilities for numerous sports recreational activities in Kish island, where can be pointed as: Dolphin park or Dolphinarium, birds garden, diving training, jet ski, water ski, speed boating, parasail parachute, jet boat, pleasure fishing boat, cycling buggy. It’s worth nothing that one of the longest cycling tracks of world is in Kish Island. This cycling track is more than 51 km where encompasses island’s circumference.
Hegmataneh hill is one of the largest ancient hills of Iran where oldness of this ancient city returns to Median era selected as Median capital city at eighth century A.H. It’s probable that city has been constructed by order of Deioces first king founder of Median dynasty. This city after Median and at Achaemenid era also used as summer capital city and some constructions appended to original city.
Area of this hill is 40 hectares and results of some excavations in this area is a part of city barriers and some houses which are brought out of the underground city barrier has 9m diameter and remaining height of that is 87012m. This barrier with huge towers surrounded the city. Discovered items of this ancient city are preserved in Hegmatanhe museum at east side of hill and interested groups can visit this museum. Of the most important relics, it’s notable to point to plinths of Takhte Jamshid’s palaces columns where encompassed a circle stone of plinth related to second Artaxerxes with Cuneiform script, two stone stamps glass stamps of before Islam era and a cow head of earthenware which is belonged to Archaemenid era. Because of it’s high degree of oldness antiquity and it’s easy access due to it’s location at center of Hammadan city has a particular position in tourism.
This building is tomb and memorial building of Iranian famous philosopher scientist, Sheikh Alraais Bu Ali Sina. This great scientist was born in 373 A.H. in Afshanah village of Boukhara city and after domination on sciences providing invaluable services especially in medical science at first of Ramazan in 427 A.H. demised and have been buried in Hammadan city. Original building of tomb was constructed at Qajar era and in 1330 S.H. under attempts of society of Iran’s national relics current structure has been designed by engineer Houshang Seihoon and the tomb was reconstructed.
Architecture of building is adaption of before after Islam and is rather similar to Gonbad Kavoos tower in Gillan province where important difference of these two structures is pillars instead of walls of tower. There are 12 columns used in constructing this tomb where it may emphasize on 12 sciences majors which Buali Sina was known. His birthday is named "Doctor’s day" in Iran.
Date of this structure’s construction is at late Saljuk era in sixth hijrat century by order of Aalavian dynasty. This structure originally was built to be a mosque but after building a basement for that, the complex become family cemetery of Aalavian dynasty 2 persons of this family have been buried in this place. Plan of structure is rectangular and has brick elevation. Each side is about 12m and it’s height is 11m.
Inside the monument is octagonal with very beautiful moldings brick works. It has a domed ceiling where in course of time has been vanished. This building is registered in Iran’s national relics in 1310 S.H.
This place is burial point of great gnostic poet of fourth century to early fifth century. Importance of this poet is because of his couplets. First building of tomb was built in an octagonal tower form in sixth century at Kharazmian dynasty. However, this monument has been repaired several times and last time was in 1344 S.H. when a new construction was implemented by society of national relics.
This structure was enlisted in Iran’s national relics in 1376. The form of tomb is an octagonal tower with eight columns where it’s elevation is mostly made of granite stones. Inside tomb, there are 24 couplet poems of Baba Taher carved on stones. It’s notable to mention that another monument under the name Baba Taher tomb is also in Khorram Abad near Falakol Aflak castle. Because some couplets of this great poet are in this province’s native language (Lori) and in this language people call great figures Baba, some believe that real tomb of Baba Taher is in Khorram Abad city. At any way, there are two structures under the name of Baba Taher tomb in Iran.
Esster was spouse of Xerxes who was Jew and Mardkhai is uncle of Esster and a influential figure in court of Xerxes.
Mardkhai by help of Esster prevented killing of Jews by Xerxes Shah and because of this had special respect for Jews.
This cave has longest route of boating in hall water caves of world. Height of cave from sea level is 2100 m. It’s classified in category of world’s water caves and depth of it’s transparent in some parts reaches to 17m. There has been a channel system in order to use it’s water since Safavid era residents of nearby villages used it’s water as a reservoir. In 1342 S.H. This cave explored by a team of Hammadan’s spelunkers and in 1352 S.H. Mr. Abdullah Hajilou due to his social reputation and popularity conducted a project to increase it’s entrance from half a meter to 5m and it’s height to 3m.
Hajilou other spelunkers who accompanied him had an important role in presentation of this cave and developing suitable conditions for entry of public into Ali Sadr cave. After widening entrance developing beton platforms at entrance of cave, throughout electricity also was reached there and a hotel was founded near the cave. This cave is a set of halls and water passage ways where access to all by boat is available possible. This beautiful lime cave provides beautiful and unique sceneries in front of visitors eyes. Inside temperature of cave is about c and it’s water temperature is c almost at all seasons of year althea same it’s water is without odor or color. Chemically it’s water is bicarbonate light calcite with PH of acidity and near neutral and because of abundant lime salts is not potable. There is not any fauna species in this cave. And up to this date, 14 km of length of cave has been identified explored but there still are undiscovered passage ways and paths inside the cave. About 4 km of cave has lightening and prepared so as to be visited by visitors. This lime cave where it’s origins are springs and precipitation has beautiful stalactite Dripped in ceiling. And there are also stalagmites Drop at bottom of cave and points without water these phenomena are interesting and diversified shapes. The cave has been developed by long time erosions in lime stones concentrations. Two other respectively to Ali Sadr cave and one of the sources of Ali Sadr cave water supply is Sarab cave. Access road welfare facilities around the cave are suitable. This recreational complex encompasses one hotel, ten wooden villas with one two bed room, sixteen residential suits, fifty equipped camping tents, restaurant, small food stuff and handicraft bazaar, prayer room, rest rooms, parking lots green landscape. The best virtual guide for interested people is: www.alisadr.com, where travelers can get familiar with cave’s environment and even buy ticket through internet.
This beautiful valley is one of the important recreational places of Hammadan city. Other than it’s agreeable climate, this valley importance related to Ganjnameh waterfall it’s epigraphs. Ganjnameh waterfall with height of 12m where it’s origins are Dasht Mishan springs, Keevar valley and Takhte Nader pour into Abbassabad River. It freezes in winter and is good for ice hiking.
Ancient epigraphs of Archaemenid era are also attractions fo beside the waterfall. Since Hegmataneh is ancient capital city of Archaemenids, two epigraphs one by order of First Dariush second by order of Xerxes has been carved in fifth century B.C. These epigraphs are in cuneiform related to ancient Parthian, Ilami Akkadian languages where 20 lines script has. Epigraph has dimensions of 190 × 290 cm and 190 × 270 cm.
One of the particular features in this village is using stone in it’s buildings where provides beautiful sceneries in it’s architecture. Amongst historical relics of this village, Mehri Khanom castle and barn are notable where have been constructed at late era of Qajar. Mehri Khanom Lady Mehri, that residents of village recall her in this way is late Mehri LiLi Gharagouzlou who was daughter of village’s master named Naghi Khan Gharagouzlou who provided a lot of services in growing horse and introducing Arab horses’ species.
Plan of castle is cruciferous with area of 330 , in two storys, currently the castle is abandoned. It’s barn is located at 2 km south of village has area of 1650 where is constructed by granite rubble stones and is a seeable relic of this village.
This mountains range has beautiful peaks such as Alvand, Kalaghlan, Daembarf, Yakhchal and Ghezel arssalan where are natural attractiveness’s of Hammadan province. This beautiful mountain is a suitable ground for many tourism related activities, where the most important one is mountain climbing. Another activity in field of nature sightseeing is Ski resort of Tarik Dareh.
This resort is located at 15 km from Hammadan on the road of Ganjnameh gondola lift. This resort has Ski school, 3 Ski lifts, parking lots, restaurant, hotel, clinic, championship base and grass Ski field. Another recreational and tourism centers in this mountains is Ganjnameh cultural, sport recreational village. This village is model region of tourism where located at 5 km from Hammadan on route of Ganjnameh. This complex encompasses a extended range of activities such as rock climbing, bungee jumping Dive from platform, suspension bridge, gondola lift and troll.