Isfahan, historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 kilometres south of Tehran. Isfahan is the second most populous metropolitan area in Iran after Tehran. The counties of Isfahan, Borkhar, Najafabad, Khomeynishahr, Shahinshahr, Mobarakeh, Falavarjan, Tiran o Karvan, Lenjan and Jay all constitute the metropolitan city of Isfahan. Isfahan is located on the main north–south and east–west routes crossing Iran, and was once one of the largest cities in the world. It flourished from 1050 to 1722, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries under the Safavid dynasty, when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history. Even today, the city retains much of its past glory. It is famous for its Persian–Islamic architecture, with many beautiful boulevards, covered bridges, palaces, mosques, and minarets. This led to the Persian proverb “Esfahan nesf-e- jahan ast” (Isfahan is half of the world). The Naghsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan is one of the largest city squares in the world. It has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The city also has a wide variety of historic monuments and is known for the paintings, history and architecture. Isfahan City Center is also the 5th largest shopping mall in the world and combines traditional Isfahani and modern architecture.
This relic was built in 1060 A.H. at Second shah Abbass. As historian statements. This bridge is built as remnants of Hassan Beik bridge which had been constructed at Teimoori era. This is near Khajoo district of Isfahan city and because of this, is called Khajoo bridge. The Length of the bridge is about 132m and has 12m height and 21 arches with different width. This building has both roles of a bridge and a water dam.
By closing arch ways of under the bridge a small lake has been created behind the bridge. One of the most beautiful bridges of the world is this bridge which is also decorated by mosaic works. There are painting inside it’s arches and porticoes. This bridge has been enlisted as Iran’s national relics.
This desert by having diversified and worth seeing attractiveness has a special rank in tourism. It’s vincity to Tehran and Isfahan is one of it’s particular advantages. It’s salt lake can be pointed as the most important attractivenesses of this desert. At the rainy season water height reaches 2 cm at some parts of the lake where it’s water quickly vapours and developes beautiful polygens. Around the salt lake there is swampy and only is tracks which are called Maranjab and Datkan Well are suitable to reach salt lake. Another beautiful attarctiveness of this lake is it’s beautiful dunes.
Matanjab caravensarai is also one of the historical relics of this desert which is Safvid carvansarais. At 12 km distance from Maranjab carvansarai, the high dunes are begun in sequence which is known as Rigg chain. To visit the desert in accompany of an expert local guide results in peace mind and also ability see more of nature beauties.
The highest peak os Zagross chain at height of 4409m is located at Pedena region. Denna mountain range is placed at border lines of three provinces: Isfahan, Kahguilloye and chahar mahal Backtiari. Denna protected zone which is registered as biosphere reservoir is also included in this circle. Beautiful nature of this region and presence of Denna mountain are specified features of this district..
Many mountain climbers travel to this point every year to climb this mountain where Khafr village is the last base in this ascend. This beautiful village with orchards specially it’s unique apples is host of many nature interested people other than mountain climbers.
This square is second registered structure in Iran which is enlisted as UNESCO’S world heritages in 1358 S.H. Date of construction of this glorious structure is from 1000 to 1006 A.H. under the order of Shah Abbass Safavid. Previously there was a garden under the same name at current location. This square which is considered as one of the most beautiful and largest squares of world is rectangular with dimensions of 507m x 158m. Naghsh Jahan is a combination of art, technology, religious and economy.
Arrangement of two principle mosques Shah mosque and sheik Lotfollah mosque beside Aali Ghapo and on the other hand about two hundred two story business chambers around the square together with portal of Qysari Grand bazaar state this issue. This place is one of the greatest centers of handicrafts in Iran which is unique due to production diversity and volume. Hence handicrafts demand is matchless. After constructer of this square, it’s roof was paved by gravel and its space has been used for events and ceremonies. Soldiers parade feast and illumination, diversified ceremonies and some games such as polo and ghapoogh were conducted in this square. Naghsh Jahan square of Isfahan is the first field of polo in Iran. Stone portals of entrance for polo game still are remained at north and south part of this square. Polo is one of the limited games in the world that Iran is known as it’s developer. One of the reson of Iranian troop’s success in battles was this fact that their horses were trained in polo fields and this game was a battle exercise for both the Jockey and the horse. Another game which was played in this square was ghapogh. In this game a wooden post with 120m height was assemble exactly in front of Aali Ghapoo entrance and a plate that was full of gold or silver coins was put on top of this very tall wooden post then satvid commanders must riding horses and concurrently shoot th plate. Satvid kings and high courtiers, particularly at second shah Abbass era watched this game and other events and ceremonies from Aali Ghapoo balcony. This square now has four historical elements at it’s circumference, hence it is one of the most important poles of Iran’s tourism.
This mosque was constructed in second Hijra century and has many memories of different times attached to it. The Mosque was built by Arabs and was repaired at reign of Moaatassam Abbassi. At Al Booyeh era, the complex extended and some parts were added to it’s original structure. There is an epigraph from year 81 A.H. in mosque which is accounted as the oldest document of this monument. At the right hand side of the mosque’s entrance, there are some stone benches from Daillami era in fourth Hijra century.
At the left hand side of the mosque’s entrance there is it’s forty calumn shabestan which it’s development returns back to Al Mozzaffar era in eight century A.H. South balcony and main structures of the mosque which are located at this side belong to fifth century A.H. and Saljuk era. Weatern balcony of this mosque was built in sixth A.H. century and has mocarabe work with very beautiful appearance. This mosque is a beautiful architecture museum which has many valuable and significant works adhered to it.
Design of this palace and it’s surrounding garden was created by Shah Abbass, and constructed in 1057 A.H. second Shah Abbass reign also some parts were added to original structure. The Area of the palace is 2120 m2. There are 20 columns in front hall of the building, because of this columns it’s called Forty column and the images of these 20 columns are reflected on the water of a pool in front of this hall. This has 110m length and 16m width. As historian, say first shah Abbass held twenty third anniversary of his reign in this palace at second shah Abbass era, it was a place for serving government guests.
Walls are embellished by mirror and painting and it’s windws are ornamented with inlaid and carving works decorated by colored glass. At the middle of it’s platform, a marble pond is built and four columns are made around this beautiful pond. This relic that is one of the beautiful structure of Isfahan changed to a museum from Rezashah reign.
This bridge has been constructed from 1010 to 1020 A.H. under the order of first shah Abbass. The bridge had 40 arches at built time but now it has only 33 arches. The Length of the bridge is 295m and it’s width is 14m. This bridge is also called Allah Verdi khan bridge or Julfa bridge. One of the applications of this bridge at shah Abbass times was it’s utilization at Pouring Water feast.
This ceremony was held on July the third and was one of the oncient Iran’s feasts. This ceremony was favored by shah Abbass and held beside Siosepole bridge.
However, this relic is located at Isfahan districts, but it’s oldness returns to Ilkhanate era at late period of Oljaito reign. This place is burial point of Amoo Abdullah who was one of the distinct devouts of eight Hejra century. The building has single platform architecture where some researchers believe that minarets were added later to single platform. The height of minarets is 17m and they are at 9m distance from each other.
Special feature of this relic is the movement of it’s minarets, where ever one minaret is shaking another one start to shake as well.
The history of this church building returns to those times when some Armenians migrated to Iran and settled in Isfahan’s district at safvid era. At that times, many churches were built in Isfahan, specially in Julfa district where the most important one was a small church named Vank. However, this church was rebuilt in 1065 A.H. at second shah Abbass and a large church constructed at the location of previous one.
It’s belfry was also built after 38 years at Shah Sultan Hossein safvid reign in 1113 A.H. several epigraphs are on it’s portal, windows and alter at the backgrounds of mosaic works. The inner walls of the church are ornamented with gold and gilded religious mages. This church has a library of antique manuscripts. A copy of prophet Mohammad (PBUH) treaty with Christians and Armenian in fourth hijra century is kept in this church.
One of the most beautiful central deserts of Iran is Khoor and Biabanak desert which in addition to it’s salt lake, is also has suitable sky and environment for observing stars. This desert has abundant natural attractivenesses and because of it’s diversified and local residences, attracts many travelers. The best access route to this desert is Khoor city. Amongst it’s attractions, it’s otable to point to Salt Lake, dunes and desert villages life in desert with all it’s difficulties and beauties is going on well in this region.
Desert’s salt lake is one of the largest seasonal salt lake of Iran and the best route to access this lake is located between Khoor to Tabbass road to 50 km to khoor city. Depth of salt lake at water season is also low and about 5 cm to 10 cm. Never enter these regions without guide. Some beautiful villages are disperse throughout this region such as Garmeh has beautiful palm groves and springs, Messr, Farahzad and Biazieh it has a castle dated back to Sassanian era. Dunes are around Farahzad village which are very beautiful samples of moving sand.
Desert starts from the point and extends to north and east directions. Dagh Sorkh is the name of a desert with 23 km width and 26 km length which is located at east of Zavareh city and is separated from central Desert by low rise mountains which are named yakhab. Dagh is a very flat clay land without salt or a little salt. It’s features which are characteristic of this desert is beautiful Tagh jungles, high rise dunes and it’s seasonal salt lake. Dark sky of this desert is favorable for amateur astrologers to observe stars.
This part of the desert has only recently been considered by interested ones and necessary infrastructures still are not developed in it as Khoor and Biabanak deserts. Like other deserts to enter this desert having a guide is a must as well. One of the cultural attractions of this region is Ardestan principal mosque which is belonged to third A.H. and was built on an ancient fire temple which it’s relics still can be observed at the corner of the mosque.
This village is at the foot of Karkass mountain. Two beautiful valleys are at each side of the village where some rivers are flowing from Karkass heights down these valleys. On the routes of these rivers there are waterfalls the most beautiful of them is Tammeh waterfall. The height of this waterfall is 13m. Some of these waterfalls are seasonal.
Tammeh village is a mountaneous village and his cold climate which embedded beautiful garden paths and due to it’s suitable climate it’s host of many visitors from near cities. This village has many gardens of diversified fruits such as pear, cherry and apple.
The oldness of this fire temple returns to third century A.D. and it belongs to Sassanian fire temples. This building is made of mortar and stone it’s height is 14m. In it’s architectural design two forms of Elam and conventional aults are applied.
This fire temple was repaired properly about 50 years ago. This four structure enlisted in Iran’s national relics in 1317 S.H.
It’s a man made cave where it’s development date futures to Parthian about 1800 to 2000 years ago and some believe that it belonged to rituals of Mithraism school’s followers. From discovered antique things inside the cave it can be pointed to earthenwares and clay dishes of sassanian times and some relics of parthians coins of saljuk and Ilkhanate periods a stone status of a ram’s head and some stones similar to millstones. Length of the cave is 950m. Along the cave, there are passage ways of 90 cm height and 60 cm width, which is not possible to pass than standing.
Fourty wells are in the cave. The deepest one has 9m depth now in order to facilities traipse inside the cave, steps have been provided. However, lightening is available along the cave, but because of it’s steps and ladders, it’s not suitable for all age groups and old people and children are not able to enter this place. In the garden, welfare facilities for temporary stay such as arbors, outlets, green spaces and rest rooms are available and its atmosphere is suitable for a holiday refreshment.
Origin of it, is Eskandarieh spring which is located near Niassar four arched structure and after flowing through gardens reaches the city. This spring has permane and clear water and maintain city and farms water needs. Water travels through Talar garden or the place where Raies cavern is located and falls down. Steps are provided to access the fall from the garden, but there are 300 steps.
For people who have problem to take these steps, it’s better to use lower track to waterfall. The height of this waterfall is 25m and together with the beautiful natural environment around this waterfall, the complex is considered as recreational locations of the city. Waterfall route is at sedimentated and lime ground, thus beautiful phenomena such as stalactites and stalagmites have been provided at it’s path which add more beauty to this natural waterfall.
Creation and development of this garden is assigned to Al booyeh governors, but at Mongol rulers and safavid ones in particular parts adhered to this garden. The area of the garden is 23700m, the garden is consisted of entrance portal, tower, pool house, dais, small hammam, traditional hammam, Karim Khaini building and museum This garden has been a location where shah Ismael and shah abbass were crowned.
Perhaps the most bitter memory of this garden is the murder of Amir Kabir at Nasser Aldin Shah reign. Main source of this garder is Soleimanieh spring that maintains garden’s water. This relic was enlisted as Iran’s national in 1314 S.H.
The oldness of this ancient hill returns to 7000 years B.C. or down of history. This ancient hill is one of the important centers of human life and beginning of civilization in Iran’s plateau where there have been found earthen wares which are evidence of this hill historical precedence. This wide region included two northern and southern hills. Relics of six historical periods are found in this location.
The most important building in this complex is sialk ziggurat which has 14m neight. This ziggurat was built at early years of third millennium B.C.
Ammeri’s house: in Amir Ahmad district of Kashan city this old house is located. The house is one of the most houses of the city that was built at Zandia era after earthquake and was repaired at Gajar times by Sahamolsaltaneh. This building is built within a plot with 8000 m2 arear and has 12000 m2 space including 35 rooms and hammam which were all unique at their own times. The house is consisted of different parts and has very beautiful embellishments.
Tabatabaeis House: It’s located at Soltan Amir Ahmad district of Kashan city. This house was built on remains of another house which had been constructed at Zandieh era and was ruined after earthquake. Development data of this building is between 1250 to 1255 A.H. The owner of this house was one of the carpet trades of Kashan. The house has a beautiful architectural from and embellishments. Boroujerdis house: This house is located at Alavi avenue of Kashan city. Construction activities of this house that took 18 years was terminated in 1310 A.H. This house had been owned by a Kashan’s merchant. In addition to it’s beautiful architectural from and having externally part and women’s apartment, it also embosses significant embellishments.
The date of this city development returns to Sassanian and early Islamic era. This cpmlex has been utilized at Saljuk, Safvid and even Qajar times and had capacity to room 2000 persons in there storeys. This city which has title of the largest underground city of the world is a complex of man made rooms and tunnels which were parapets of city residents at crisis times and invasions by enemies. People could hide for a long time in this place after taking foot stuff underground and using potable water of subterranean sources.
Since this city is constructed in there storeys, air can circulate very easily and human movement because of it’s 180 cm height is also convenient. This underground city was discovered in 1383 S.H. at excavating a water well and now by installing and developing safely paths is ready to host visitors. Besides it’s numerous steps, there is not any problem in traipsing and it’s suitable for all age groups. This place enlisted in Iran’s national relics and it’s registration procedure as a world’s relic is accomplishing other attractivenesses of Noushabad city are its castle and reservoir.
This building is the second brick and mud built structure of Iran which was constructed 400 years ago at Zandieh era. The castle has rectangular from with 6400 m2 area and 4 round towers each with 11m height. Citadels were used for military applications in conflicts and at peace they were used as carvansarai. This monument was built in two storeys where the lower floor was the residence place of head grooms and nules while second floor was residence of merchants and distinct people.
There are holes on high walls of castle, which were used as an alarm system for residents in a method that some pigeons were kept in these holes and at nights residents were informed about entrance of enemy by ropes or hooks and ladders by pigeons flapping sound of restlessness. This relick is registered as Iran’s national relics and currently is used as a hotel. The complex is consisted of some facilities such as: suite, restaurant, traditional tea house, show room and outlet of handicrafts within a traditional and historic environment.