Kermanshah the capital of Kermanshah Province, is located 525 kilometres (326 miles) from Tehran in the western part of Iran. People mostly speak Southern Kurdish. Kermanshah has a moderate and mountainous climate and is the largest Kurdish-speaking city in Iran. Because of its antiquity, attractive landscapes, rich culture and Neolithic villages, Kermanshah is considered one of the cradles of prehistoric cultures. According to archaeological surveys and excavation, the Kermanshah area has been occupied by prehistoric people since the Lower Paleolithic period, and continued to later Paleolithic periods till late Pleistocene period. The region was also one of the first places in which human settlements including Asiab, Qazanchi, Tappeh Sarab, Chia Jani, and Ganj-Darreh were established between 8,000-10,000 years ago. Kermanshah sights include Kohneh Bridge, Behistun Inscription, Taghbostan, Temple of Anahita, Dinavar, Ganj Dareh, Essaqwand Rock Tombs, Sorkh Deh chamber tomb, Malek Tomb, Hulwan, Median dakhmeh (Darbad, Sahneh), Parav cave, Do-Ashkaft Cave, Tekyeh Moaven al-molk, Dokan Davood Inscription, Sar Pol-e-Zahab, Tagh e gara, Patagh pass, Sarab Niloufar, Ghoori Ghale Cave, Khajeh Barookh’s House, Chiyajani Tappe, Statue of Herakles in Behistun complex, Emad al doleh Mosque, Tekyeh Biglarbeigi, Hunters cave, Jamé Mosque of Kermanshah, Godin Tepe, Bas relief of Gotarzes II of Parthia, and Anobanini bas relief.
This complex has many relics from different periods of history. Bistoon is eighth registered world’s relic in Iran which has been registered as UNESCO’S world heritage in July, 2006, 1385 S.H. this complex is consisted of the following parts:
Dariush epigraph embossed image: It’s developed between 520 to 818 B.C. where Dariush victory over his nine enemies was demonstrated in three languages of ancient Farsi, New Ilamian Akkadian.
Belash embossed image: Image of Belash King of Parthian on a polygonal rock. An epigraph is located beside Belash image which describe images identify. Uncompleted Sassanian structure Ilkhanate Caravansarai: This building has been constructed at Sassanian era but was left uncompleted and in Ilkhanate period a Caravansarai with dimensions of 80 × 85 m has been built at it’s eastern side where has 64 chambers around the structure and at the middle of Caravansarai, a small mosque has been constructed. This place becomes ruined after an earthquake at Ilkhanate era.
Khosrau bridge: it’s an uncompleted bridge from Sassanian era where has 10 bases and 9 arches. Construction of this bridge was left uncompleted and up to this date there are not any clues of developing it’s passage ways or side arches. Bistoon bridge: This bridge is also one of the uncompleted bridges of Sassanian era where has 6 arches. Bases of bridge has been constructed at Sassanian era were completed in fourth century A. H. by Kord governors of Hassanooyeh.
Hunters Cave: at the foot of Bistoon Mountain at 200m distance to historical image of Dariush Achaemenidf over the head of Hercules statue, this cave is located. Bistoon cave has reasonable light and clearance where it’s access is easy. Cave is small and only 6 persons can room there. Apparently the cave has been a hideaway for hunters, because statue of cave is such that it’s residents cannot be seen unless observers get fairly close to it’s opening. Embossed image of second Mehrdad: it’s developed at powerful King of Parthian, second Mehrdad in 123 to 87 B.C. considering the Greek epigraph that carved at top of the image, this relic demonstrates Mehrdad with 4 other persons in their profile angles as their hands are help up to show their respect to Mehrdad. Unfortunately during construction one of other components of this complex named Waghfnameh of Sheikh Ali Khan Zanganeh, a major damage implied on this embossed image.
Second Goudarz embossed image: this is an image of victory of Parthian King Goudarz over one of Parthian princes named Mehrdad where was constructed in 38 to 51 A.D. Names of Goudarz and Mehrdad are embossed in Greek at top of the image.
Waghfnameh Sheikh Ali Khan Zanganeh: in this carved image on stone, a letter of devotion is shown, in which Sheikh Ali Khan prime minister of Soltan Soleiman in 1093 A.H. has devoted four shares of Ghareh Valli creak to Imams sons and two shares to Bistoon’s Safavid carvansarai.
Farhad’s cut: it’s one of the relics of Sassanian era among the complex components where it’s not clear the reason of its creation. In this work, a surface with width of 200m and height of 36 m was cut in preparation to be carved, but left uncompleted. Recently, historians believe that this surface was prepared for carving of an event at Khosrau Parvez era.
Carvansarai Shah Abbassi: it’s probable that, it’s construction was begun by order of Shah Abbass Safavid and terminated by order of Sheikh Ali Khan Zanganeh, by considering epigraphs of it facades including the name.
Hercules embossed image: This is a statue that cut on a surface in mountain a developed on a two dimension platform with 20.2m length, the figure is leant on left side at half standing position where relies on his elbow and holding a cup near his face and right hand is located on right foot and left foot is support of another foot. Length of this two dimension statue where comes out of a slab façade of mountain is 47.1m. At behind the statue, there are patterns and on epigraph in ancient Greek on stone. Patterns encompass an olive tree where a quiver is hung from it’s branch. Beside this tree a conic club with a knot on it’s cut where its projection is more than other patterns. Epigraph is in ancient Greek script and seven lines on a slab of 33 × 43 cm where it’s appearance is in the form of Greek temples. Date of statue’s development is determined 153 B.C. when this date is contemporary with middle ages of Parthian first Mehrdad reign Ninth Ashk 36-174 B.C. under body of Hercules a pattern of line is cut where length of line from head to foot is 200 cm and it’s tail’s length is 114 cm.
This wall is the tallest mountain walls in Iran were also has a very agreeable width. It’s longest track has about 1200m height. Stone of wall are lime stones and have a lot of porosity. In 1340’s S.H. for the first time a team could ascend a complete track of this wall, and most of people know this track as Harri Roost. There are tens of tracks known in this wall.
This wall is unique and excellent for rock climbing in Iran and whole world, where many rock climbers travel to this province to climb this wall.
It’s area is about 54950 hectares. Region’s topography is rocky mountainous. Flora of this region consists of chestnut, wild cherry, how thorn, wild pear turpentine tree. Region’s mammals are copra goat, wolf, leopard, badger.
Partridge is also one of the birds in this region. Amongst prey birds, Barbary falcon, golden eagle, falcon and some species of hawks are also habitats of this region.
This is a complex where is located at top of Dalahou mountain and it’s oldness returns to Parthian Sassanian era. This complex is spread at different heights of mountain and fort is located at peak of mountain. This complex is consisted of gypsum wall kitchen, gate, Jaydar A barrack in Zardeh village, Rash hill, Yazdgerd castle, gypsum dome, Davar fort or a fire temple from Sayanni era Inside Ban dome village, barrel drum house and mill.
The most important part of this complex, is the fort at top of mountain or upper fort where places at highest point of Dalahou heights and surrounded by a barrier in which at every 6 to 16 meter, a semi circular tower has built. Plan of the fort is irregular and part of that is natural form of mountain where it’s area is less than 2000. Applied materials in construction of fort are rocks and gypsum mortar. Cisterns are source of supplying water of fort.
Peeran village is located near foot of waterfall. However, because of notable height of this waterfall it’s possible to access waterfall from other track. To reach up the mountain and at top of waterfall, it may be use another route from Zhakeleh village in Reejab district. This is a three level waterfall, where two upper levels have more height comparing to third lower level.
Waterfall has more than 100m. At top of waterfall on the mountain, there are very beautiful views of Dalahou Mountain.
This cave with 6 km length is one of beautiful river caves of Iran. Oldness of this cave is 65 million years. This beautiful cave is consisted of river, lake and well. It’s halls are significantly beautiful and are located in spaces of 1400 500 meter under names such as Maryam hall, Kouhan Shotor hall, Barzakh Massir hall, Bolour hall and Aroos hall. Soda straw reeds with more than two meters length reverse umbrella shaped.
Lime sediments that are very rare which are unique features of this cave. At the top of the cave and on the Ghalehgoor Mountain outside it, a castle of late Sassanian era and early Islamic times has been built where a narrow part of it’s barriers has left in Ghalegoor Mountain. Because of this, the region is called Ghalehgoor, Ghalehgoori, Ghalehgoora , Ghalehgabri but in the course of time because of mistake in pronunciation amongst native people, this cave and it’s mountain is called Ghoori fort. First 500 m of inside track of this cave is prepared for public visit. It’s repaired and prepared in such way that all interested people can enter the cave and enjoy it’s scenes. Inside weather is agreeable Coolness and there are paths to reach by the inner river of cave. Suitable lightening increases cave’s beauty. There are parking lots and other welfare facilities and visitors can spend half day very reasonable at this place. After this 500m, the route of cave is closed because it’s difficult needs spelunker's equipments where only professional spelunkers can enter and continue this part by obtaining permission. This cave is a good example of managed caves of Iran. Developing reasonable track with minimum damages to cave’s space, preparing two suitable spaces for public and spelunkers and agreeable facilities at outside the cave are distinct features of mentioned management. Under these activities and approach of management, either spelunker have fair space to explore the cave and also interested people also able to visit the cave. Considering observed interest from public in travelling to visit Ali Sadr cave, it’s expected that, this cave also has same role in Kermanshah province. In addition to this, location of the cave between two provinces of Kermanshah Kordestan is another advantage. After Kermanshah which itself has numerous cultural natural attractiveness’s by continuing road, visitors are lead to Paveh in Kordestan province and in continue reached to very beautiful territorial city of Noudsheh. This city is multi level and beautiful where is located on a mountainous road to Oraman Takht in Kordestanl. This set of worth seeing places is good motivation for a travel. There are not residential facilities beside Ghoori fort cave and it must be considered in travel planning of visitors.
This relic is a collection of masonries from Sassanian era. Complex is consisted of several parts. A component is carving of second Artaxerxes’s coronation scene in 379 to 389 while he is in the middle and taking monarchy ring from chief priest of Zoroastrian. Under feet of these two figures is an image of defeated emperor of Rome. Over image of King is also image of Mitra is carved where she has a Corona of light and suggests that Mitra protect King.
Small arch is belonged to period of 383 to 388 A. D. at third Shapour era and is located at right side of great arch. Inside the arch, there are two statues where in right side is third Shapour statue where is beside second Shapour statue. Beside these statues, there is an epigraph which it’s script is about those two statues and their features where is in Sassanian Pahlavi language Greate arch is belonged to 628 - 290 A. D. and is located next to small arch. Great arch is an art of carving with beautiful appearance where it’s top point of carve is inspired by Achaemenids having dentils. Under the dentils at top of the arch, two triumph’s Goddesses are carved at two sides of moon crescent. Inside the arch is scene of Khosrau Parvez coronation. Khosrau Parviz is taking monarchy ring from Ormuzd and in it’s right hand side, Anahita is located. Under this image, Khosrau Parvez with his horse Shabdiz is carved.
Area of this swamp is approximately 450 hectares and determined as prohibited region for hunting shooting by head office of environment protection of Kermanshah province. There are about one hundred and ten small large islands with area of about one hundred square meters to one hectare inside this swamp’s limits and are occupied about three percent of it’s total area. Fona coverage of swamp is grassy.
This swamp is suitable biosphere with high security for many species of immigrating marine birds in winter time. Name of swamp in Kordish language is a combination of two vocabularies of “Hashi” that means snake “lan” that means house. Thus Hashilan means house of snakes and there are really different snakes such as water snakes dice snakes.
This pond is a vast pool where is full of lotus flowers. These flowers blossoms and leaves come out of water surface and covered a large area of water surface.
In recent years, park and welfare facilities for visitors’ convenience have been developed around this pond.
This cave is the most difficult cave to be explored and only a few spelunkers have entered this cave and is a testimony for them. Length of cave is 1364m and its depth is 751m. There are 26 wells in this cave where deepest well is 42m. This cave was explored by a British team of spelunkers in 1350 S.H. and many professionals have tried to reach to end of this cave during consecutive years and even lost their lives.
Although, at tourism point of view this cave has not any value and tourists cannot visit inside of the cave, but because of general knowledge and finding natural attractiveness’s of this land it has significant value.