Khuzestan

Population: 4,5 million

Khuzestan Province is located in the southwest of Iran, bordering Iraq and the Persian Gulf. Its capital is Ahvaz. As the Iranian province with the oldest history, it is often referred to as the “birthplace of the nation”, as this is where the history of the Elamites begins. Historically, one of the most important regions of the Ancient Near East, Khuzestan is what historians refer to as ancient Elam, whose capital was in Susa. The Achaemenid Old Persian term for Elam was Hujiyā when they conquered it from the Elamites, which is present in the modern name. Khuzestan, meaning “the Land of the Khuz” refers to the original inhabitants of this province, the “Susian” people (Old Persian “Huza” or Huja (as in the inscription at the tomb of Darius the Great at Naqsh-e Rostam, (the Shushan of the Hebrew sources) where it is recorded as inscription as “Hauja” or “Huja”). In Middle Persian the term evolves into “Khuz” and “Kuzi”. The pre-Islamic Partho-Sasanian Inscriptions gives the name of the province as Khwuzestan. The seat of the province has for the most of its history been in the northern reaches of the land, first at Susa (Shush) and then at Shushtar. During a short spell in the Sasanian era, the capital of the province was moved to its geographical center, where the river town of Hormuz-Ardasher, founded over the foundation of the ancient Hoorpahir by Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian Dynasty in the 3rd century CE. This town is now known as Ahvaz. However, later in the Sasanian time and throughout the Islamic era, the provincial seat returned and stayed at Shushtar, until the late Qajar period. With the increase in the international sea commerce arriving on the shores of Khuzistan, Ahvaz became a more suitable location for the provincial capital. The River Karun is navigable all the way to Ahvaz (above which, it flows through rapids). The town was thus refurbished by the order of the Qajar king, Naser al-Din Shah and renamed after him, Nâseri. Shushtar quickly declined, while Ahvaz/Nâseri prospered to the present day. Currently, Khuzestan has 18 representatives in Iran’s parliament, the Majlis, and 6 representatives in the Assembly of Experts. Khuzestan is known for its ethnic diversity; the population of Khuzestan consists of Lurs, Iranian Arabs, Qashqai people, Afshar tribe, indigenous Persians and Iranian Armenians.[3] Khuzestan’s population is predominantly Shia Muslim, but there are small Christian, Jewish, Sunni and Mandean minorities.[3] Half of Khuzestan’s population is Lurs.[4] Since the 1920s, tensions on religious and ethnic grounds have often resulted in violence and attempted separatism, including an uprising in 1979, unrest in 2005, bombings in 2005–06 and protests in 2011, drawing much criticism of Iran by international human rights organizations. In 1980, the region was invaded by Ba’athist Iraq, leading to the Iran - Iraq War.


Shadegan swamp

  This swamp is located in Longtitued 48 degree and 17 minutes to 48 degree and 50 lantitued is located in southwest of Iran in South Of khozestan, from north to Ahvaz from west to Karoon riverand Abadan and Ahvaz road, from south to Bahmanshir river and persian golf from east to Khour Mosa and Khour Gharlan in persan golf. Sarkhabe Village Is a suitable place for visiting the swamp

This swamp is located at 48',17" to 48',17" longitude and 30',17" to 30',58" latitude where is end southern limit of Iran and south of Khoozestan province and to the north is Ahwaz, west is Karoon river and connecting road of Ahwaz to Abadan.

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South is Bahmansheer river and Persian Gulf and it’s east is Khoor Mousa and Khoor Ghazllan in Persian Gulf.


Howayzeh or Hooralaazim swamp

  Is located in west bof Khozestan on 47 degree 58 minutes to 47 degree and 16 minutes in the east and from 31 degree and 53 minutes to 41 degree north, from Chazabe of northwest due to Khorahshahr is it’s longittued

Having length of 100 km and width of 15 to 75 km is located beside three cities of Bostan, Soosangerd and Howayzeh and a part of this swamp extended to Iraq land. It’s the largest swamp in Khozestan and throughout of estuary is covered with reeds. Water depth at edge of estuary is shallow, but gradually reaches several meters at the middle point. This swamp has about 450 thousand hectare area where one third of whole area located in Iran's land and the rest is positioned in Iraq.

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This swamp is developed by extra waters of Karkheh river, Doweerch river and some portions of Arvand rivers excess water. This is the only swamp which obtained 100 in experts ranking zero to 100 and none of swamps has obtained this weak in ranking, the most exposed to threat of extinct fauna species are living in this swamp and this place is very significant, regarding population and species of birds. A major part of small gulf or estuary where is in Iraq was dried out during war and the main factor of this was particle pollutants. This swamp is threatened by many problems such as lack of supplying it’s water and entered contaminations and pollutions to it’s limits.


Dez and Karkheh protected zone

  Karkhe region Is in west of Teranzit road Of Ahavaz and Shoosh like a green belt is around Karkhe

Area of this zone is 13995 hectare. Dez region is located at 20 km distant from east to Shoush Ahvaz transit road. Dez region's area is 17533 hectares. These two regions are located at beside Dez and Karkheh rivers and their forest districts are biosphere of Iran yellow deer. This specie of Asian deer's was believed to be extinct but in 1334 S.H. was seen in these jungles and by live capturing and transferring them to Naz plain of Sary city the specie was protected to be extinctected.

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A few deers of this specie also transferred to Ashk island n uremia lake. Vegetation coverage in this region includes trees (such as eremurus, vitex, caper, rubus and annual bushes such as leguminous and graminineae plants. There are dominant abundance of ewphrate poplar more than other species in Des forest while there are more trees & shrubs of tamarix in Karkheh Jungles.


Farah Koul

  Is located in 7 km northeast of Izeh in Izeh and Isfehan road to Kool Farah valley

Koul in Bakhtiyary language means strait. In this strait 6 embossed patterns from Ilamian era are carved and these are important relics from ancient times available in Khoozestan province and also Iran. In this work there are amazing and exquisite design including King's face’s commandes, woman, captives and some animals such as cow, buffalo and sheep are carved.

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General patterns are related to worship, respect and carrying presents and veneration of godhead or governors. Eizeh city is one of the important centers of these embossed patterns and there are many carving of different periods of history in this region.


Shivand waterfall

  Is located in 75 km of Izeh in Izeh and degdaz road

Because of filling Karoon 3 dam with water. This waterfall displaced to other side of dam and it can be reached only by boat.

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Visiting the international Joghakhour pond and Chaleshter castle in Charmahl Bakhtiari Province, boat riding along Karoud 3 dam lake, walking across a beautiful green valley located above Shivand village, visiting Shivand waterfall, visiting Kherang Ajhdar and Kajhdom castle, having a walk around Miangaran pond, visiting Ashgaf Salman, Visiting stone lions known as Losharah, visiting Sousan pond and Pelekani Thoraya village


Dezfool bridge and mills

  Old brigde at the bottom of Montazeri street of Dezfool

This bridge was constructed across Dez River in 1700 years ago. The bridge has been repaired at different periods and connects east and west parts of city where currently is in use. This structure has 14 arches and thee is a small vault. Dezfool mills are at vicinity of old bridge in beach avenue, between old bridge and Shariati avenue. The complex of mills and weirs are at the bank of Dez River.

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Oldness of those also returns back to Sassanian and development of city. Due to their applications, these facilities were also functioning at next periods of history and number of them reached to 60 at Safavid era. Some of them in course of time and not being used were ruined.


Shoy waterfall

  Is located in 100 km of north Dezfool in dezfool and leyos road near Shooy village

It takes one hour on foot from village to foot of waterfall. Height of waterfall is 100 m and it’s width is 40m .This waterfall is one of the most beautiful and tallest waterfalls of Iran and flows in Shoy valley to lead to Dez River.

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Another waterfall is located in vicinity to this one which is named as second waterfall of Shoy. This waterfall is located at border line of Khoozestan and Lorestan provinces where sometimes is recalled in both provinces.


Tar springs

  Is located in 25 km north east of Ramhormoz in Mamatin tourism Sample village

This spring is the most unique geotourism phenomena of Khoozestan province. Around this village. There are 10 springs from which tar exits naturally. Since thousands years ago, tar distilling furnaces have reminded beside these springs, where tar is separated from water and mineral salts. According to discovered epigraphs in Takhte Jamshid, tar from these springs was used in making dishes and developing buildings, Derived water of these springs after separation continue flow to Ramhormoz River.

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According to myths, the river and that black tar was blood and belonged to a dragon which was killed by Roeintan Esfandiyar. This relic is registered in National relics list. This region has numerous natural and cultural attractivenesses, but still is weak in tourism infrastructures regards.


Tesh Kouh

  Is located in 3 km of ramhormoz in 6 km Mamatin village in Ramhormoz and Abolfares road

This mountain is the most beautiful phenomenon in geotourism of Khoozestan province and is very worth seeing and attractive phenomenon in geotourism where has been burning since a very long ancient time up to this date.

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This burning mountain has a very unique and beautiful appearance especially in nights to Mammateen village and tar springs is of merits of this region.


Ommoldbs

  Is located in 2 km in Bostan In Dasht Azadegan 40 km of Soosangerd next to restricted Area of Mish Dagh

This desert where program of stabilization dune sands has been implemented in some parts of that embrace shrubs species such as porsopis calotrpis procera, tamarix Gallic and other plants which were resisted to climate of the region..

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This vegetation coverage develops very beautiful scenes. In some parts of region dunes maybe seen. Ommoldbs forests district is also recreational place of Bostan city. This region tolerate a hard times when was war zone during Iran and Iraq war.


Chaghazanbeel

  Is located in 35 km south east of Shoosh in Khozestan

This place is the first registered relic of Iran in UNESCO list. This relic was registered as world's relic in October 25th 1980 or 1358 S.H. Chaghazanbeel ancient district is an ancient city where has been constructed at thirteenth century before Christ by order of Ontach Nepeerisha, King of Ilam. This city is consisted of Ziggurat, barriers, gates, temples, residential houses and places. This ancient city was discovered during 1930 to 1940 when foreign oil companies were active in south of Iran and some excavations have been conducted in this city by French archeologist Giershman in 1950.

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This ancient city has three external, middle and internal barriers where some parts of those barriers were brought out of under ground almost intact. External barrier with 4 km length and a width of more than five meters embraces the whole complex of Doraventash. There is a gate at it’s eastern side. After entry from gate into the middle area between internal and external barriers, there are some structures such as two palaces, Nooskou temple and water drainage facility. About this water drainage facility, there are numerous comments and some experts believe that was water purification plant. Middle barrier also is a regular quadrangle where each of it’s sides has 400m length and included a brick built tower and four gates. Thickness of this wall also is more than five meters and is built of sun dried bricks. There are also some temples and shrines at space between internal and middle barriers. Sacred part of city is located inside internal barrier and ziggurat was build in this location. This barrier which had been constructed with raw sun dried brick and had six gates embraces Ziggurat like a ring or closed circle. A major part of this structure having 530m length is still remained. Ziggurat is an Akkadian vocabulary which is used for multi level or multi storey temples in Mesopotamia and Ilam. Chaghazanbeel ziggurat has a square form where length of each side is 105m, this temple has been developed in five storey at a height of 52m. However, now there left only two and half storey with height of 25m. This building is made of sun dried brick and brick and dedicated to two Ilamian Gods named Inshoshinka and Nepirisha. This city was ruined in 640 B.C. by order of Asenepar while construction of some parts of city remained incompleted. Precious relics was found during excavations such as bronze statue of queen Nepirasso wife of King Aontash, axe of aluminium bronz, Ox statue, eagle, lion statute, stud and clay stud, glass and earthenwares. The statute of completely ruined during Iran-Iraq war by cannon shot and Asenpar approach was continued by his descendants.


Shoosh castle and surroundings

  Is located on the top of the high heel in Shoshtar

This castle was built in 1276 S.H. by using extracted bricks from Darius palace and some bricks which was patterned by cuneiform from Cheghazan beel district. At the time of French Jan Mary Jack De Morgan residence in this region research and excavations, this castle was built in order to preserve all discovered ancient relics. This structure was constructed by Iranian architects in a trapezium design and form of middle ages castle and in 1291 S.H.

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It’s development terminated. Currently this castle also is used as center of research and preserving ancient relics. Shoush museum was inaugurated next to castle at Shoush ancient region in 1345 S.H. This museum is one of the most important museums for preserving relics of ancient Persia and invaluable relics from different period of history are kept in this place.


Apadana Palace

  Is located in Taleghani street of Shoosh near Shoosh museum

This palace was constructed by order of Darius Achaemenid in 516-521 B.C. This palace was erected on remaining of a palace of Ilam era and used in winters by achaemenid kings. During excavations in this structure an epigraph was found. Now, this epigraph is kept in Louvre museum where the architecture and used techniques in construction of this palace is described. Area of Apadana palace is 10434m and includes different parts such as levee hall, harem, portal, central courtyards and admission palace.

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Stone pillars and sun dried brick built wall with brick made surfaces are used as architectural elements in this palace. Some parts of complex had been burnt out in 461 B.C. at first Artaxerxes era where were repaired again in period of 404-359 B.C. at second Artaxerxes region. Today same as Takhte Jamshid, only stone pillars remained from this huge palace of Archaemenids where demonstrate it’s structural form. A major part of discovered treasures due to French archeologists transferred to Louvre museum. Even stone capital of columns was broken by saw and sledge to be transported. In a book that was written by Mme. Diulafova titled "Shoush excavations it inerary”, she stated her travel to Iran and treasures which were transferred from Iran. Shoush museum also located in Imam Khomeini avenue and at vicinity of Apadana palace. Building of museum has been constructed in 1345S.H. and consists of multiple parts from Paleolithic age to Islamic era. This museum is one of the rich museums of Iran.


Tomb of Daniel Messenger

  Is located in Imam Khomeini street of Shoosh in coast line of Shapour river

Daniel messenger was a great messenger of Jews who has lived in seventh century B.C. there are numerous narratives about him but most probable one is, this messenger lived Contemporary to Cyrus Archaemenid and was brought into Iran from his birth place and demised at the same place. But more important than narratives is special respect and attention of Moslems and other religious minorities to this tomb.

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This tomb has four arched structure and a conic dome with denticles and two mosaic built minarets.


Sica water structures (Shoushtar's waterfalls)

  This complex is located in Shoshtar city

It’s the tenth world registered relic in Iran. This relic was registered in world relics list on June 25th 2009 or 1388 S.H. this registered complex is consisted of a water structure structures such as water mills, shoushtar waterfall, weirs and some other relics. The complex was organized and developed at Sassanian era in order to exploit water energy where it’s design and construction is an industrial phenomenon at it’s time because of oldness of this complex.

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This water structure was used to separate some portion of Karoon River, escalating water level, exploiting water energy and managing this energy along a one kilometer distant. The most parts of this project are: Mizan weir, At first stage this weir, separates Karoon water in two streams of Gargar and shatiet creek. Gargar creek is an artificial stream where conducts a branch of Karoon into the city and it’s different structures and after 45 km again pours into Karoon. This weir and bridge has 10 arch's each in length of 5.2. (five & two tenth meters). Gargar creek: This creek also makes another part of this structure and is inlet opening of water into structure. This creek's bed is paved by huge stones which are connected together with metal clamps to prevent ruin of water pass.
Shadravan weir and bridge: this Bridge is developed across shateit creak to calm water current and also escalate water level. This bridge has 44 big arches and 43 small arches where currently 9 of them at northern side and 28 arches at Southern side demonstrate some remaining.
Pavilion: this structure is located at a side of one of the old gates of city and it’s function was monitoring and control of different structures of complex.
Salassel castle: it was base of administration and managerial at different period of history. It’s probable that mentioned castle has been constructed at Achaemenid era. This castle tolerated many accidents such as Hormozgan one of Persian commander's resistance against Arabs in 17 A.H. when he has resisted in this castle as some narratives for 6 month to two years and after conquest of castle become Moslem and provided a lot of commitments to this new born religion.
Complex of waterfalls and mills: diversified man made streams and tunnels have conducted water into desired passages for different applications. The most important application was using water energy to rotate water mills where after that water pours in form of beautiful waterfalls into ponds. There are other weirs and streams in this complex which help conduct and organizing of water current.


Arpanah waterfall

  Is located in 45km of Lali in Lali and Arytah road

A spring with very strong flux of water pours from core of mountain and makes a set of waterfalls having 5/10m heights. There are several watermills on it’s way where the most popular ones are panther and whale waterfalls.

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Around this waterfall a suitable tourism region is developed.


Bardneshandeh

  Is located in 15 km of Masjed Soleyman in Shahid abaaspour dam road

This is one of the oldest exposed Iranian temples where rituals and religious ceremonies are held in open air. Some research eras assign this place to Achaemenid and others assign the place to parthians. A stone column with 50 cm diameter and 3.5 meters height is in this place where around it some relics of building belong to Achaemenids are seen.

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This region is located in a highland plain where surrounded by mountains and make a very beautiful view. In this temple statue of Hercules or Hercule (Champ God) with more than 2m height where he is choking a seated lion was dug out and is kept in Shoush museum.

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