Lorestan Province is located is the western Iran in the Zagros Mountains. Lorestan, also spelled Luristan, geographic and historic region, western Iran. Its name means Land of the Lurs and it extends from the Iraqi frontier and Kermānshāh and separates the Khūzestān lowland from interior uplands. Extensive mountains stretch northwest–southeast; between the higher ranges are well-watered pockets with lush pastures. Oak forest covers the outer slopes, together with elm, maple, walnut, and almond trees. The Lurs are of aboriginal stock with strong Iranian and Arab admixtures, speak a Persian dialect, and are Shīite Muslims. Under the Pahlavis the Lurs were settled, and only a few retain their pastoral nomadism. Lorestān was inhabited by Iranian Indo-European peoples, including the Medes, c. 1000 bce. Cimmerians and Scythians intermittently ruled the region from about 700 to 625 bce. The Luristan Bronzes, noted for their eclectic array of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Iranian artistic motifs, date from this turbulent period. The bronzes were found mainly in tombs near Kermānshāh. Cyaxares, ruler of the Medes, drove out the Scythians in about 620 bce. Under Cyrus the Great, Lorestān was incorporated into the growing Achaemenid Empire in about 540 bce and successively was part of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sāsānid dynasties. Little Lorestān, the northern part, was governed by independent princes of the Khorshīdī dynasty, called atabegs, from 1155 to the beginning of the 17th century, when the last atabeg, Shāh Vardī Khān, was removed by the Safavid Abbas I the Great and government of the territory was given to the chief of a rival tribe, with the title of vālī; his descendants retained the title. The southern part of Lorestān, or Great Lorestān, was independent under the Faḍlawayh (Fazlaveye) atabegs from 1160 until 1424; its capital was Idaj, now only mounds and ruins at Malamir (modern Izeh). Lorestān proper stretches between the Dez valley (used by the Trans-Iranian Railway) and the Upper Karkheh River and northward toward Nehāvend. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy; crops include rice, wheat, barley, cotton, oilseeds, sugar beets, vegetables, and fruits. Industries produce cement, sugar, processed foods, carded wool, and ginned cotton. Iron ore and molybdenum are mined. Roads and railways link Khorramābād with Borūjerd and Alīgūdarz.
The most important bridges are: Kashgan: it’s constructed in Cheigini country across a river with same name on the ancient route of Shapourkhost to Tarhan. Oldness of current bridge returns to 4th century A.H. and Al Hassanooyeh kings. Length of bridge is about 320m and width of each eastern archs of it’s respectively 23 and 20m. Only three archs of total twelve archs of bridge have been ruined and the remaining archs are still fit.
Some bases of bridge are built with huge cut stones. This bridge is registered in Iran's national relics.
Gavmishan bridge: it’s located at 30 km out of Pole dokhtar city across Seimareh River at border line of Ilam and Lorestan provinces. Since Seimareh is border line of two province of Lorestan and Ilam, a part of bridge is in Lorestan and another part is located in Ilam province. This bridge that is one of the huge structures of Sassanian era has length of about 175m and width of it’s passage way is about 8 meters and 20cm. Currently it has 6 archs width of archs or space between archs bases varies from 2.5m to 25m. This bridge is registered in Iran's national relics list.
Shapouri bridge: it’s located at south of Khorramabad city. Oldness of this bridge returns to Sassanian era. Length of bridge is 312m and it’s height is 10.75 where consisted of 28 archs and 27 bases. Surface of each base is 61m and space between two bases is 7.5m. Only five archs are fit and the rest of archs ruined by natural factors. It’s registered in Iran's national relics list.
Kalhort Bridge: it’s located in Maammolan country of Poledokhtar city. This bridge had functionality at different periods of history. Most of it’s parts correspond to Badr Bin Hassanooyeh in 374 A.H. it’s bases are constructed in ellipse form and one of it’s features is present of a plat form at middle of two main bases of bridge. This platform is made of 12 steps and it’s functionality is not clear properly, but it’s probable that be used as support. This bridge is registered in Iran's national relics list.
Poledokhtar Bridge: it’s located at entrance of Poledokhtar city. This the second bridge in Lorestan which is known as "Krodat" or daughter's bridge. This structure was probably constructed in Saassanian era and in 4th century A.H. has been repaired. Length of bridge is 270m, it’s thick and huge bases which were cut out of quality stones are still available at river. Only one arch of bridge is fit where road of Khoramabad to Andimeshk passes under that. This route in addition to connecting two provinces of Lorestan and Ilam was also main road of ShapourKhost city to old city of Khozestan province named Jondi Shapour Sassanian era. This bridge is registered in Iran's national relics list.
The highest peak in this range is Senbaran with height of xxxxm. High peaks and snowy deep and long straits, permanent rivers, very diversified flora and fauna villages of mountains feet are features of Oshtorankouh. Range of mountains. Many small rivers have orins in these heights where it may point to Mohreh Zarin, Marbareh, Gaharroud and dareh daei rives. There are ice trenches in it’s valleys where are called Challs in native slang.
Amongst these Challs it’s worth point to Mishan Chall, Kabood Chall, Baran Chall, Faialsoon Chall, Shah Takht Chall, Piarood Chall and Homayoon Chall. This mountain range is entitled as protected zone because of it’s flora and fauna species. Fauna species of this region are brown bear, fox hyena boar, grey wolf, Capra, ewe and ram, also birds species of falcon, partridge, owl, duck and eagle while all of these species are under environment protection. Oshtorankooh has an agreeable capability of geology and mountain climbing. In some points of Oshtorankooh there are fossils of fish and calm. There are numerous villages such as Daretakht, Sivoleh, Kamandan and Tayan at feet of these mountains.
Mountain salamander of Lorestan is one of the amphibious species which is in threat of extinction, by ignorance or intention of natural and human factors. There are two main problems in preserving this specie, firtly, because their biospheres are on the country throughout railway system and Tehran and Ahwaz railway and tourists annually pass this region and may reside some days in this district where access to these harmless and beautiful creatures are easy, thus residing of those ignorant tourists who interested to spend some days in beautiful natural environment of this region leads to altering natural population of this species.
Second reason is hunting salamander alive and transfers it to home aquariums and also pet shops in large cities. Every year, groups are observed that are in region with complete set of equipments and tools in order to hunt and collect this rare specie and sell in nearby cities such as Khorramabad, Doroud, Andimeshk, Shoush, Ahwaz and also Isfahan and Tehran to aquarium shops. One important point is preserving and protection of this invaluable native specie of Iran under comprehensive public attempts. Every body can help, in particular by not buying this specie the prevalent market of this creature would be vanished. Besides, enacting preventing laws by environment organization and encountering with violators are effective approaches.
Height of this waterfall is 65m and it has 8m width in water season. This waterfall has not any flowing water origin and comes out of a, mountain's huge rock and after some short distance pour into a pond. Surronding vegetation of this waterfall is forest and is one of the recreational places of province.
Specially in spring time. Easy access road to place is one of it’s advantages.
This architectural tissue has about 280 hectare are where located at central limits of city. This part of city includes more than old houses, principal mosque of city, old city bazaar,Imam mosque Soltani, several caravansarais and tomb of Imam's son Jaffar which oldness of some of them is more than a thousand years. Oldness of houses of houses returns to Qajar era and before that.
It’s worth pointing to Tabatabai houses in safa avenue, Birjandi house and house of Eftekhar Islam. Tomb of Imam's son Jaafar also is another religious places of this city which belongs to Saljuk era. Principal mosque of city is also another beautiful monuments of Saljuk era.
There is not sufficient information about its construction date. And it’s probable that original structure has been built at First shapour Sassanian and in different periods of history been repaired or some alternations have applied. These alternations in particular ar evidence at Safavid and Qajar era. Castle is constructed on the top of a huge rock an is looked over Khoramabad plain completely.
At northern foot of hill a full loaded spring flows. Area of castle is 5300 m2 and some materials such as stone, sun dried brick, lime and gypsum mortar are used in it’s construction. Castle has 8 towers, 2 courtyard and 300 trenches. Entrance of castle is located at south west side of castle. Currently this monument which is registered in list of Iran's national relics has become to be anthropology museum.
In this valley 17 caves with oldness of prehistory period are available where the most important of those are Qomri, Yafteh, Psangar, Graljeneh, Hoomian, Mirmallass caves. This valley with 15 km length and about 10 km width and placing at concentrated mountains of Zagross range of mountains, having plenty springs and water sources had been a safe place and haven for early human beings and survive of those according to researches, the residents of this region were the ones who for the first time used some bone tools and clothing's which found around their habitat and gradually, humans beings became ready to live in group and community. Khramabad valley is prehistory paradise for archaeologists.
Khramabad valley is prehistory paradise for archaeologists.
It’s consisted of two lakes of upper Gahar smaller and lower Gahar larger. Lake is formed by waters of melting snow of Oshtoran Kouh where have accumulated behind a natural weir of partly collapse of mountain and it’s overflow pours into lower Gahar lake which is main lake. Length of main lake is about 5 km and it’s width is 600m with area of about 100 hectares. Maximum depth of lake is 28m.
There is not any driver way to access the lake and only a very hard to take path is available, because of this it’s safe from contaminations and damages may apply by human. It’s very suitable location for recreational and sportive fishing. In winter season surface of lake freezes.
Height of this waterfall is 48m and it’s width is 20m. Origin of this waterfall is springs which are located at upper levels and it’s water flows to pour into Sezar rive. Access to place is easy. This waterfall is one of the most beautiful waterfalls of country and currently becomes one of the recreational points of this province. The best visiting seasons of this location are spring and summer.
There are facilities such as chalets railway, tents and also local small bazaar, telephone, water, electricity, medical house, police station.
Total number of poledokhtar swamps was 13, previously, but one of them because of recent droughts and another one due to developing drainage system for agriculture purposes dried out. The most important ones are listed below. Lafanneh 1 and 2 swamps: it’s located at distance of 1 km west of Mirabad village Poledokhtar's dependency. This complex of swamps is consisted of two swamps where are separated by a hill.
Balamak swamp: located at 7 km south west of Poledokhtar in vicinity of Mirabad village. Area of this swamp is 8 hectares and it’s water maintains by rainfall. Pikkeh swamp:it is located at 2 km southwest distance to Sarab hammam district at road to Darehshahr city. It’s water maintains by subterranean water beds.
Zardab swamp: it’s locate at southwest of Pikkeh swamp. Area of this swamp is 1.5 hectares and its depth is 1.5m height of this swamp regarding sea level is 760m and it’s water is fresh.Ootaff 1 and2 swamps: located at 500m distance from west of Kabood swamp. It’s area is about 4.5 hectares and it’s depth is 5m height of this swamp is 590m above sea level.
Length of this valley is a few kilometers and is one of beautiful straits with interesting bedrocks where by wind abrasion. These rocks formed unique shapes. There are abundant species of wild fruits in this valley due to it’s agreeable climate and a stream also flows through valley which it’s origin is upper level springs.
This strait where is not unfortunately introduced properly, is one of the unique natural attractiveness of region which has prime capabilities in geotourism.