Mazandaran is located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.
An early Iranian civilization flourished in the beginning of the first millennium bc in Tabarestan (Mazandaran). It was overrun in about ad 720 by the Arab general Yezid ibn Mohallab and was the last part of Iran to be converted to Islām. Its insecure eastern and southeastern borders were crossed by Mongol invaders in the 13th and 14th centuries. Cossacks attacked the region in 1668 but were repulsed. It was ceded to the Russian Empire by a treaty in 1723, but the Russians were never secure in their occupation. The area was restored to Iran under the Qajar dynasty. The northern section of the region consists of a lowland alongside the Caspian and an upland along the northern slopes of the Elburz Mountains. Marshy backlands dominate the coastal plain, and extensive gravel fans fringe the mountains. The climate is permanently subtropical and humid, with very hot summers. The highland slopes rise abruptly in the west and more gently in the east. Forests have been largely destroyed; the higher parts are cultivated summer pasture studded with villages partly deserted in winter. Wild boar, deer, and birds are numerous; the tiger, formerly found in the lowland, has disappeared. Cattle are usually humped; the buffalo is widely used as a draft animal. There are many rivers, including the Chalus, Heris, Talar, Tajan, and Nekā, which are well-stocked with trout and salmon. The population is of Iranian stock with a large admixture of Turkic tribes (especially Turkmen), Armenians, and Russian immigrants. Māzandarān is still famous for its Arab or Turkmen horses. The smaller Indo-Iranian-speaking ethnic minorities include the Qadikolahi and the Palavi. The Qajar, from whom came the royal family that Reza Shah dethroned in 1925, form an enclave among the Māzandarāni. Some are settled farmers; others retain their original nomadic way of life.
This sea that is about 28 m lower than international waters is common territorial location of Iran and Turkmanistan, Kazakistan, Russia Azarbaijan. This sea is the most characteristic of Iran’s three northern provinces of Mazandaran, Gillan Golestan. For many people who travel to these provinces, sea is main factor in their decision to travel. However, thick and green jungle of north must not be ignored at the side of sea.
Mazandaran provinces with 336 km coastal line of sands have a high potential in marine tourism and recreational capabilities. The most important coast line cities of this province are Ramsar, Chalous, Noshahr, Royan, Noor, Mahmmoud Abad, Fereidoonkenar and Babolsar. Many beach urban suburbs also are developed at edge of sea. Unfortunately constructing villas and buildings in this province is ruining beautiful natural environment of this province.
Another beautiful appearances of this province and two other provinces next to this are green forests of north. These hyrcanian forests which are remnants of ruined European jungles have great ecological value and because of general drought dry nature of Iran, people have significant interest to these regions. Particularly due to beautiful contrast of these forests mountains. On the routes between this province’s cities, there are many forest parks where are recreational places for interested people.
A list of important parks is mentioned below: Alimestan forest: It’s on the Haraz road in Amol city at Alimestan village. This jungle track is location of Allium which a leek species and grows in May.
Andarklai forest: It’s located at 5 km distance to Shirgah city. The villages of this forest’s region are Chaibagh, Tapehsar, Chalioshour, Kheilami where are suitable summer locations. Ilmilli forest park: It’s located at 5 km to west of Ramsar. Area of Ilmilli forest park is 96 hectare. The welfare recreational complex of Ramsar named Shahr Sabz Shahr Sabz gondola lift is in this region. This complex has facilities such as: Carting track, pint ball field, marine club Jet Ski, beautiful resorts, musical water jets, water fire water jets, beach alcoves, beautiful jungle village with equipped chalets and residential suites.
Babol Kenar forest park: it’s located at 22 km. South of Babol city on route of Yegenja Forouz. At left hand side of road a sign board indicating Babol natural forest park. This park has 760 hectare area.
Babol Bozcheft forest park: it’s located at 25 km south of Babol city on route of Bandpay road in Bozcheft village. Facilities of this region are children play ground, traditional coffee house, water spring and sanitary services. Area of this park is 716 hectare.
Shemshad Banafsheh forest park: This park is at 12 km west of Chalous city. Shemshad Banafsheh forest park with area of 650 hectares placed at Namak Abroud region.
Telard forest park: it’s located at 7 km of Qaem Shahr at a route that is called Nezami road. It has facilities such as sanitary services and football ground. A lake named Nezami Road Lake also is beside this park. Area of park is 160 hectares.
Jazzin forest park: it’s between Fereidoonkenar in villages of Jazzin, Oxer and Zahedkolah. Region’s area is about 60 hectares.
Javarem forest park: it’s at 6 km to Shirgah. It has facilities such as asphalt access road, sand paved area residential places with camping areas, rest rooms, prayer room, shop. Area of Javarem forest park is about 365 hectares.
Kharmachall forest park: park is located at 7 km to Abbassabad on the route of Kelardasht road.
Chaldareh forest park: it’s located at 18 km to Tonkabon on the route of Dohezar. Park district has parking lots, rest rooms, water electricity and alcoves. Area of park is 94 hectares. Chaldasht Seighal Mahaleh forest park: park is located at 26 km of south side of Ramsar on route of Ramsar to Javaherdeh. One of features of this park is it’s situation in region where families can climb mountains. A plain covered with grass tall lawns is of advantages of this park.
Dalkhani forest park: is located at 30 km southeast of Ramsar on route of Ramsar to Tonkabon and extension road of Janat Roudbar. It’s a very beautiful jungle which tourists call it corridor of paradise. Area of this park is 600 thousands square meter.
Royan forest park: is located at 11 km to Royan. It has facilities such as rest rooms, Alcoves for rest and children’s play ground.
Salardeh forest park: at 12 km south of Sari is forest park. Salardeh hotel is built in this park limits.
Seasangan forest park: is located at 27 km east of Noushahr at route of Noushahr to Noor. It’s the only reservoir of box – tree in country and Middle East. It has facilities such as shop, large shelter, Khoorgasht district for picknich. Camping area, Children Park, Wind Park, horse riding manage, Jet Ski club, boat club, beach sports fields football, volleyball, coffee shop, restaurant, buffet, unique shop computer games, 13 rest rooms, potable water platform and permanent exhibition building for natural resources. Area of this park is about 602 hectares. Shahid Zaareh Park Hoolar: It’s located at 3 km east of Sary city at route of Sary to Nekka. It has facilities such as rest rooms, Alcoves, coffee shop, traditional coffee house, prayer room, skate track, play ground, water taking platforms. Area of this park is 70 hectare. Safarood forest park: Park is located at 9 km to west circle of Ramsar city at the route of Javaherdeh. This region has a very special appearance by having jungle, river, mineral spring pleasant climate.
Tahbaz forest park: it’s located 400m from Mahmoodabad city centre. Park has facilities such as rest rooms, prayer room, entertainment unit, platform for tents, sport recreational facilities.
Abbassabad forest park: it’s at 9 km southeast of Behshahr city at route of Behshahr to Gloogah. Inside this jungle region, there is a collection of invaluable relics of Safavid era. Park has facilities such as modern equipped restaurant, traditional coffee house, coffee shop, and variety play grounds for children, prayer room, rest rooms, parking lots, a beautiful stone paved path boat station and can be a beautiful and calmative environment for tourists. Area of park is 138 hectares.
Finn Chalous forest park: it’s located at 7 km south of Chalous city at belt route of Chalous to Tehran. There is a camping area inside park where has cottages and hots for residence of travelers and special facilities such as table, bench and play ground for children are available in this park.
Kashpel forest park: at 3 km to west of Chemestan in summer place named Lavij, this park is placed. It has mineral spring, alcoves, fence, stone stairs, food stuff shop, kebab house, play ground for children fields for football volleyball also rest rooms. Area of this park is 21.7 hectares.
Koohsar Kandeh forest park: it’s located at 3 km to Nekka city in Koohsar Kandeh village. Another tourism attractiveness of this region is Imam’s son tomb of Jaafar. Mirza Koochak Khan forest park: at 20 km to Amol city on the route of Amol to Tehran, this Park is placed. It has facilities such as water, electricity, rest rooms, alcoves, tents platform, and children’s playing equipments. Area of this park is 420 hectares.
Noor forest park: it’s located at 5 km to Noor city at route of Noor to Mahmood Abad. It has facilities such as beautiful equipped restaurant, wooden alcoves in numbers, children playing parks, mosque, rest rooms sport fields. Area of this park is about 400 hectares. Namak Abrood forest park: Park is located at 12 km west of Chalous. One of the most important tourism components of Namak Abrood is its gondola lift. Area of this park is more than 200 hectares. Holloomsar forest park: This park is located at 1 km distance from Amol at route of Amol to Tehran. It has facilities such as rest rooms, water for drinking, beton platforms for rest of travelers, prayer room, alcoves traditional coffee shop, trashes, Kebab oven place.
Larijan is one of the regions with hot springs where inactive volcano of Damavand is their origin. Ramsar hot springs also is available in Alborz range of mountains where numerious hot springs have. Larigan hot spring is classified as very hot and temperature of that is c with abundant of sulphury materials. Because of these minerals it’s useful in healing dermatic diseases, bone pains, joints pains, rheumatism and people have been used that for many years.
The temperate mountain climate of this region in spring summer is attractiveness for travelling to this region. There are numerous residential places in this village and it’s considered as a tourism related village. One of the features of this hot spring is, other than public places for hot water, there are suits for rent with private hot water tub.
This mountain is highest peak in Iran with height of 5670 m and is symbol of Iran. Many mountain climbers of Iran and foreign countries climb this mountain every year. There are different tracks to climb this mountain where the south track is simplest and north track is the most difficult approach. First documented ascend of Iranian team have conducted in 1857 A.D. by Qajar colonel Mohammad Sadegh Khan’s team.
Damavand is registered as the first natural Iran’s relic in list of natural relics of cultural heritage organization. This mountain also is enlisted in national natural relics of Iran’s environment organization.
These two caves whera are at 100 meter distance from each were expolored by an American professor named Stanly Kowan in 1949 and regarding discovered relics, human life has been going in this places between 9500 to 10000 years B.C. Kamarband cave has 10m length and 4m width, while hot cave is a little larger. some human skeletons were discovered from these caves. Huto man is the name of skeletons that were discovered from hotu cave and has a very important role in identifying evolution procedure of human.
A museum has been built in vicinity of caves to recall history and relics of these caves. Access road to these caves is easy. There is a recreational complex around these two caves and has a suitable landscape for spending time. This complex's facilities are: Parking lots, rest rooms, restaurants and camping platforms in a calm environment. These caves are registered in list of Iran's national relics in 1346 S.H.
This complex has an area of about 520 hecatares where 10 hectares are belong to lake. Abbassabad beautiful lake at the middle of thick forests add beauty to this garden and provides pleasant conditions for visitors. This historical garden has been constructed in 1020A.H. by order of first Shah Abbass his mother’s birth place was this city. There is not any remaining from Shah Abbass's mansion and only it’s plot and some foundations are seeable. Some remnants of a hammam, tower, built structure inside lake, watchman's towers in dual shapes and landscapes are seeable from this historical complex.
This is notable that Abbassabad lake is not a natural lake and indeed is a reservoir dam where has been constructed at that era by order of Shah Abbas in order to collect water. This complex is registered in list of Iran's national relics and in 1391S.H. also registered as one of Iran's historical gardens together with 8 other gardens in UNESCO list. In addition to garden's research center, this complex has tourism facilities such as restaurant, play grounds, residential properties.
This monument has been constructed at Safavid era. Area of it’s garden is about 6 hectares and there are a mansion in two storey at southeast side of the garden where had been ruined in course of time and some parts of that have been repaired by cultural heritageorganization. However, current area of garden is 2000m2. Every floor has built area of about 550 m2.
It’s spring was located at middle of first floor and had a high water flux. Water of spring has been used to irrigate garden. This place was one of the recreational places of Shah Abbass. The relic has been registered in Iran's national relics in 1352S.H.
These beautiful summer locations of north Alborz Mountains range has two beautiful jungle road where worth seeing even it traveler passes occasionally. These two tracks are ended to summer villages where located at heights and some of these villages have dusty roads and may be not suitable for stay. However, in two thousand routes at Chaldoreh, residential facilities are available.
Generally, visiting these tracks and spending sometime in heart of jungles could be a memorable travel.
Javaherdeh also is one of the summer villages of Samammoos mountain where has a jungle mountainous access road that ends to Javaherdeh. This large village where about 250 households live there is only four month residential because of cold climate and remaining month of year is abandoned. There are residential facilities in this village.
There are seeable waterfalls also in this region where important ones is a waterfall at end of village’s limit and another one is locate at route of Javaherdeh to Ramsar.
This hill is one of the historical hills of Iran where it’s oldness returns to 3500 years B.C. it has numerous historic layers where it’s probable that first habitats of place were same cavemen who live in Huto and Kamarband caves and gradually left caves and resided in this place.
Beside, this hill there is a museum of region's discovered relics to be visited by interested groups to obtain more information while visiting castle about history and life style of human who resided here. In this museum, burial ceremony and buried items with demised people are exhibited.
Olness of this tower returns to fourth century and early of fifth century A.H. and Alziar region in Mazandarran. According to tower's epigraph, owner of this tower was Kia Abu Khavaress Shahriar and date of 413 A.H. carved on epigraph. Plan of structure is circular and is a cylindrical tower with more than 5m diameter and a pointed dome where still is fit. Of interesting features of s epigraphs is presentation of Pahlavi and Kufic scripts together.
This monument, once in 1338S.H. under attentions of society of Iran's national relics and another time in 1382 has been repaired. Some people by mistake know this place the tomb of Imam's son Abdullah where shows sincerity of people to their Imams. Dynasty this relic is registered in list of Iran's national relics in 1311 route of Zirab to Lajim village is jungle mountainous and it’s very beautiful scenery to see.
This complex has been constructed at Safavid era in 1020 by order of Great Shah Abbass and used as summer residence of Safavid's kings where was very interesting place for them. This complex is consisted of mosque, Jahan Nama palace, Shah Abbassi bridge, mansion hill and Imam's son Khaleefeh. However, they are placed in separate points. Mosque which is the most important structure in this complex is a four porch mosque with brick dome where the only it’s minaret bases are remained and there is not any relics of other parts. Form Jahan Nama place also only it’s tower and rampart are left.
Shah Abbasi bridge also is a semi ruined bridge which had been a bridge with 7archs where currently only two arch's of that are left. Farahabad port was put on fire by Russian in 1054 and ruined. Mosque as a place where was base for people is the fittest part of this complex and also has been repaired. Visit of this mosque is available for public without entrance charge.
In a closed area of 3 hectares, 14 springs with completely different waters by regarding water odor, color flavor are functioning. Largest spring has very salty water with a strong flux where forms a small lake. In summer time people use this lake for swimming and use it’s mud’s of it’s sides for healing rheumatism skin diseases. Since water of lake is very salty, it never freezes. Other thirteen springs are located at vicinity of this largest one and have waters in red orange color and a little sour flavor where are oozing perpetually and beside spring, there is a little iron oxide sediments.
During long lasting years, there are beautiful sedimentary stairs by function of springs that make significant scenery. In vicinity of these springs, there is an ancient dried out spring which, although has not any water but it remnant of sedimentary shops are very beautiful. Sort mineral springs after Damavand mountain are second registered relics in natural heritages list of country where demonstrates the importance of this spring in Iran nature.
This swampy region has two south Sarandoon and north Balandoon parts. Area of this region is 17 hectares and it’s average depth is about 1m. Water of these swamps is fresh. Inside around them are reed beds swampy vegetations where are surrounded by meadows paddies.
Water of these swampy is used for irrigation of paddies at it’s season. But in autumn winter is shelter for migrating birds. Region has a suitable access road.
By traveling on Firoozkouh road, Veressk Bridge can be seen from road side. This bridge has been constructed by order of Reza Shah in 1310S.H. and is one of the bridges of Iranian railway and was one of the engineering masterpieces at it’s era.
Length of bridge is 75m and is designed and developed by an Austrians engineer at height of 110m from valley. Due to it’s unique features is registered in Iran's national relics.
By adding some parts to this cave, the place begun to be used as castle. It’s probable returns to Sassanian era. It was an important trench of Tabarrestan against invasion of looter and barbarian Arabs at early centuries of Islam. Khorsheed the last Espahanbod of Tabarestan who the name of castle is after his name also uses this castle as his last trech, shelter and hides his family inside this cave. There are remnants of tower, fire temple, cistern, hammam and stone oven where are built with stone and Sarooj mortar of lime and ash.
One of the notable points in this castle is it’s water supply system where from Kamar posht village which is places at upper levels of cave by digging a stone channel. Has been developed and water reach inside castle. This cave by regarding natural aspects has unique features. It’s entrance arch is one of the largest openings of natural caves in the world. This cave is registered in list of Iran's national relics in 1381S.H. it’s notable to mentioned that visiting of this cave is not suitable for public and need to have spelunker's skills, although seeing this natural large arch from distance and at Kamarposht road is interesting for all.
There are 5 hot spring in villages of this district, where have natural warmth and abundant of different salts such as phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium and because of high therapy characteristics are useful for bone pains, joints pains, rheumatism and skin or dermatic diseases. The most important usefulness of this hot spring is it’s impact on citrus disease where makes this spring unique Iran.
Another feature of this region is beautiful jungles of north of Iran, thus attracts many interested groups to visit this village. There are hydrotherapy facilities equipments such as residential suites, separated men women pools and hot water showers.
This forest park with area of 30 hectares is another attractiveness of this region. This spring by having different materials minerals has medical effectiveness’s such as crushing renal stones. Many people come to this place because of properties of this spring. Spring is closed and revamped where using it’s water is possible by using water taps.
There are facilities for temporary stay of visitors such as alcoves, rest rooms play ground for kids are available in the park at beside spring. Other than special features of spring, forest park environment also is attractiveness of this region.
This lake has 5m depth and about one half hectares area and is located at height of 940 m about sea level. There are forest hill dale forms around the lake where give beautiful appearance to lake. Since it’s near city and has agreeable asphalt access road, considered as recreational places of this region and it’s possible boating and horse riding.
To be conducted around the lake. Hook fishing is allowed in lake, although only a little carp fish are available to be caught.
Oldness of this castle is not possible to determine and it’s possible to return to before Islam era.
But in sixth century name of this castle stated in literatures. Area of castle is 800 m2 and it’s located at the top of a mountain.
A part of it’s access road is dusty. Area of lake is 24 hectare and it’s average depth is 20m. Origin of it’s water are surface waters springs of bottom of the lake. Lake is located at lowest point of a curved bowl and has not any overflow to it’s outer environment. By increase in rainfall at rain seasons, level of water in lake also ascends. Because of it’s placement at Alborz heights, it has very cold winters and it’s surface freezes.
Lake’s water is fresh and it’s environment is shelter of migrating birds, fish and other marine creatures. Amongst important marine life species are pike, trout and white fish. Surrounding environment of this lake is intact and completely natural without any facilities or utilities. Vanishing reed beds of lakes edges is going to violate its ecosystem, where it’s hoped to prevent cutting reed bed.
This mountain is second highest peak in Iran with height of 4850m. Importance of Alamkooh is not its peak, but it’s related to a wall at it’s northern flank where it’s climbing is very difficult and technical, thus it attracts many competitors from all around the world every year. This rocky wall has importance same as peak of K2 in Pakistan for mountain climbers.
This mountain range has 2000 peaks with heights more than 4000 m is placed in list of national natural relics of Iran’s environment organizatio