Qazvin (Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran. Qazvin was an ancient capital in the Safavid dynasty and nowadays is known as the calligraphy capital of Iran. It is famous for its Baghlava, carpet patterns, poets, political newspaper and pahlavi (Middle Persian) influence on its accent. Located in 150 km (93 mi) northwest of Tehran, in the Qazvin Province, it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m (5,900 ft) above sea level. The climate is cold but dry, due to its position south of the rugged Alborz range called KTS Atabakiya. The city was a capital of the Persian Empire under Safavids in 1548-1598. It is a provincial capital today that has been an important cultural center throughout history. Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural settlements for at least nine millennia. Qazvin geographically connects Tehran, Isfahan, and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages. Qazvin contains several archeological excavations. In the middle of the city lie the ruins of Meimoon Ghal’eh, one of several Sassanid edifices in the area. Qazvin contains several buildings from the Safavid era, dating to the period in which it was capital of Persia. Perhaps the most famous of the surviving edifices is the Chehel sotoun, Qazvin, today a museum in central Qazvin.
This castle is one of the most famous castles of Iran. In Alammoot region some other forts and castles are presented where Lamsser castle is the most famous among them. Name of Alammoot castle is associated with Hassan Sabbah. Ismaeilieh is one of the sects of shite who believes that Ismaeil the eldest son of Imam Jaffars Sadegh (PBUH) must be successor of his father. However Ismaeil demised before his father but Ismaeilieh emphasize that son of Ismaeil must be successor. Ismaeilieh sect also has several branches and these branches have power at different peiod of history and established governorship.
One of their power and domination era is period of Hassan Sabbah who belonged to Nazari Ismaeiliehwhen is contemporary with Saljuk region on Iran. In 483 A.H. Hassan Sabbah conquered Alammoot castle and make this place his center of governorship and founded several castles throughout Iran and fighted with current government. This castle had been constructed by order of Dailam’s Jostani governors in 246 A.H. where according to a myth, Dailam’s governor was guided by an eagle to this place, thus the natives named castle “Alammoot” which is a combined term of two vocabularies off ‘Ala’ that means “eagle” and “Ammoot” that means "learning". This castle is constructed at top of a very high rock which looks over surrounding plain. The only path to access castle is a narrow track at north part of that where currently a stairway has been developed there in order to access castle. This castle actually is unconquerable and access to that is impossible from other approaches. There are water reservoirs for maintaining water, inside castle where it could resist self sufficiently Ismaeilieh has devotees who were able to conduct suicide operation and one of their first proceedings of them was assassination of Khajeh Nezamolmolk vizier of Saljuk court. It was one of Ismaeilieh strategies to kill their enemies by devotees so as to induce terror and horror in them. Alammoot always was major fort of Nazarieh governors and seven people of Sabbah successors reign there until Mongol invasion in 654 A.H when Alammoot castle defeated and become completely ruined. Currently the remaining of castle are brought out of earth and repaired. Castle track to top entrance is revamped and a stairway has been developed for castle. Besides, it’s history, the surrounding plains are embraced castle with a beautiful natural scene . In may throught of this region is covered with cherry blossoms. Route to Gazorkhan village is mountainous but agreeable and now a day’s access to castle’s mountain foot is possible by car.
These two towers are about 30m apart where are two tombs of Saljuk era. First towe in 4600 A.H and second one in 486 A.H was constructed. Their cross sectional diameters are about 11m and heighs about 15m. First tower is octagonal and they are diversified made patterns on surface of each side. This tower has tow layer dome where two spiral stairway lead to dome.
Second tower also is approximately with same dimensions and from of first tower. This structure also hast two layer dome and one stairway leads to space between two layers. Insde mausoleum also is in octagonal from. Khargan tomb towers by having more that fifty brick patterns is a masterpiece in Iran’s architecture brickworks. Twin towers has been damaged and some cracks developed in it’s structure by earthquake of 1381 S.H where must be considered by authorities.
Sammiran castle: this castle was base of Al Jostan and kangarian dynasties and as Hammdollah Moustowfi wrote is one of the castles which were conquered by Ismaeilieh. The castle is located at the top of a stone mountain and only can be accessed through its northern direction. Ghezel Ozen river passes it’s south side where at the other side of river, high stone mountains stand like a very tall barrier, because of this position most of fortifications of this castle are located at it’s north side.
Nasser Khsrow wrote that this castle has three barriers and two of them have been identified so far. The northern barrier is the best part which has not decayed where has some intact round towers and ramparts. Height of this barrier is about 15 meter and is made of rubbles anf gypsium mortar with 2.40m thickness. This barrier also have a wooden skein of one meter height. Western part of castle’s architecture is different from northeast part. In this part only ramparts are seen and round towers are not present, considering that entrance to this part is impossible, it maybe concluded that inside of this place was residential. Relics of residential units are observable inside the castle. Sammiran castle also same as other castles, has been constructed for resist against different attacks. This relic is registered in national relics list. Large and small towers of Sammiran, these towers are at vicinity to Sammiran castle is region of supplying water by Sefid Rood River’s dam on the top of a high hill. By considering features and style of architecture and available embellishments these belong to early Islamic era, where while it’s simple but demonstrating a beautiful appearance of early Islam’s architecture and it’s ornamental brick works. Cross sectional plan is consisted of two tombs in octagonal form and stone columns embellish external elevation. Regarding large tower or Sassan’s castle, it’s probable that a dome with two layers and pyramid shape may be of the first structures of this category. Notable point about twin towers of Tarem is Sassanian architectural style where is concluded from connections and making firm barriers.
This castle has applications at different period of history and it’s probable that by considering evidence was constructed at Sassanian era. At Khurazmshahian era also had application and also was one of the famous castles of HassanSabbah. Some experts even claim that it was stronger than Alammoot castle. At both side of castle in east and west of structure, there were very deep valleys and only two north and south tracks were passable.
Currently there is not any relics of it’s northern fortifications, but south gate and rampart and also east rampart are available. Dais structure is located at south section and castle has food stuff go downs and water preservations system at siege events. However, by considering it’s large area about 9 hectares planting also was possible inside the castle.
This lake with an area less than seven hectares has fresh water and it’s length is about 275m and width of 325m. Lake is generally in shape of a hole where its deepest point is in southeast with 7.5m. Water of this lake is maintained by springs of lake’s bottom and also precipitation. This lake is place of fishing, swimming and boating in summer time and in autumns is habitat of migrating birds such as swan, goose and duck.
Marine life of this lake is consisted of species such as rainbow trout, pick and carp. In winters because of cold climate surface of lake freezes and makes a good pitch for ice skate. Lake’s water is maintained by percipitation and springs of it’s bottom. There are drive road to access lake and has a suitable enviornment for camping.
Kharoud river passes through this region and water kharaghan mineral spring is pouring into this river after being used by people. Sediments of fourth geological period are covered surrounding surface of this spring, water of spring comes out of carbonate sediments which are placed on lime structures of eocence period.
There are a fault from north east at south west where kharagan spring is located at extreme end of south loxation. Origin of spring has had many shifts due to blossoms. Route to gazarkhan village is mountainous but agreeable now a days access to castle's mountain foot possible by car. Some factors such as earthquake or sedimentary effect of water itself, thus it’s position changed a lot along line of fault and these shifts has developed a hill shape stack of travertine stone with 20 height around spring's origin where is located in vicinity of asphalt road. Water of Kharghan spring is classified as chloride sodic and Bicarbonate calic, hot with acidity Ph and temperature of 55c0 in class of hot springs. Water of this spring is effective in treatment of psychosomatic pains, sciatica and rheumatism, infections of respiratory system, throat, pharynx inflations and also chronic bronchitis through inhaling. Flux of spring is 3 litre per second.
A part of it’s access road is dusty. Water of Yelleh Gonbad (dome) mineral spring is classified as Bicarbonate Calcid Fero and is Gaseous, very hot with ph at acidity level. Temperature of water is 420c and waterfalux is 25 to 35 litres per minute, having these features is the most important factor to attract tourists for visiting this region.
Bathing in this water because of its temperature and content of Carbonic gas is alleviative and pain killer. This water is effective in treatment of neurotic diseases, joint and rheumatism diseases and it’s drinking has impacts on activities of digestive system, liver and biliary channels and also is helpful in stomach and intestinal diseases where for a long years, native and local people know about advantages of this water in treatments of several and different diseases and use it for dermal and joint disorders. This region has not welfare facilities for visitors.
Because of great importance this region was add to four region list of National environmental protection organization. Southparts of this region are plains and rest of region is hill and dale and also mountains at an area of 26000 hectares. At plain parts, gazelles are found and other parts of this place is a suitable biosphere for ewe and ram.
Other fauna species of this region are wolf, red fox, jackak, boar, hare, porc pine, marbled polecat and stone marten. Diversity of birds is limited and mostly is bird of prey. Flora species include acacia, willow, poplar, ash tree, silverberry and almond. This protected zone has not perpetual river but there are permanent sprinks in it’s limits where the most famous ones are Bashggel, Branchal and Nickcheh. Another attractiveness of this region is historical castle of Gheez or Ghez in vicinity of Abkaloo and sacred place named Haft Sandoogh also is a place of importance.
The oldest part of mosque after Sassanian from four arched ceiling over private altar is Haroonalrashid era in xxxx A.H. other parts of mosque belong to other periods of history up to end of Qajar era. North porch and two minarets with mosaic works are of Shah Tahmassb era and west porch of this mosque was constructed at Shah Soleiman Safavid. South porch where is the most beautiful porch of mosque at second Shah abbas era. where added to entrance of private altar.
Great principal mosque with glorous minarates high porches and invaluable cornices is one of the excellent relics of Islamic periods of history. The most important and beautiful part of this mosque is it’s private altar and Saljuk style dome where has five epigraph in Kufic and the most invaluable of these is the one indicating complete text of Baghareh Surat of Quran which a masterpiece of Kufic calligraphy. In May 2013(1392S.H.), Cultural heritage, organization, handicraft organization and tourism organization of Qazwin city while repairing west minarate of this mosque, inaugurated museum of stone and earthen ware at west Shabestan of this mosque. In this museum different kinds of earthenware, embossed patterns on stones, sash windows, mosaic and all kinds of cornices are exposed.
Itadel Aali ghapo portal times occupied a large region of city and were constructed in 966A.H. by order of Shah Tahmassb where Shah Abbas extended those. Currently there left only two components of this citadel, the Aali Ghapoo portal and forty columnar palace. Aali Ghapoo portal: this structure is in Shohada sepah avenue of Qazvin. Height of this portal is 17m and was considered as main entrance to governors offices at Safavid era. Portal’s structure is consisted of high porch of entrance with dentall arch and three rows of archs at it’s sides.
Some pojections with brick made pillars in two level completed structure of portal. Connected vestibule to entrance porth has octagonal shape and at sides of entrance line, watchmen’s chambers were located inside this vestibule, stairs of accessing uppper floor where is Kettledrumer chamber are observed. Epigraph and mosaic lattice are the only remaining embellishments of entrance porch. This epigraph is in thulth script and is Alireza Abbassi famous calligrapher and painter of Safavid era work. Forty columnar palace pavilion: this monument is located in Azadi square of Qazvin city. This building has been repaired and revamped at Qajar era and named Chehel stoone. Chehel stoon monument has octagonal form and two storeys. Plan of building has a design consists of cross axes and projections. Ground floor’s ceiling is covered with mocarable with unique patterns and ceiling of upper floor is covered with blossom pattern. Currently this building is used as calligraphy museum.
One of the important points in Roodbar Alammoot regions is Andaj valley where because of it’s environmental capabilities natural carverns and type of it’s mountain's tissue was always suitable for human's resident. Name of this valley and it’s river is after the name of a large village under the same name which is located at end of valley.
Present of river and abundant number of springs in this valley where is positioned. Afer Moallem Kelayeh and opposite to Alammoot country, make village green, develop rice farms and orchards and there are many villages such as Saein Kelayeh, Mollah Kelayeh, Kondanssar and Andaj along the river route. At river's bank and between villages of Mollah Kolayeh and Kondanssar there are relics of before Islam villages which were built with large and small stones of river.