Qom (also spelled as Ghom) is the eighth largest city in Iran. It lies 125 kilometres (78 mi) by road southwest of Tehran and is the capital of Qom Province. Qom is one of the holiest cities in Iran and the middle East and is entrenched in centuries of history. The famous thing about Qom is the Fatima È Massummeh Shrine which is a highly respected shrine and a very clean place. Qom has many carpet and sweet shops. Qom is famous for it’s “sohan,” a flat sweet biscuit made of pistachios and saffron. “Gaz”, a nougat sweet is also available. Qom is also known for the unique and beautiful silk rugs which are famous worldwide for their unique silk and patterns. Naturally, as one of Islam’s holy cities there are numerous religious shops which sell religious books, versions of the Koran and compact discs.
Under blessings of Maasoumeh (PBUH) tomb who was daughter of Imam Mousa Bin Jafar, the city of Qom becomes second pilgrimage city of Iran. This complex is a precious treasure of architectural and art relics where always illuminate shitte world. It’s different components are dome, porches, minarates, tomb and archs of sacred chamber where paint art and Zeal of Iranian architecture.
Furthermore this complex embraces burial place of many distinct figures who were contemporary clergies and religious experts whose tomb is pilgrimage points for many interested people. Sacred portal museum is beside sacred tomb and shrine, where is one of the oldest museums of Iran and unique treasures of invaluable of ancient relics and items of this country. This mosque has been constructed in 373 A.H. and repaired and also revamped in succeeding centuries. This mosque is host of many supporters of Shite dynasty (PBUH) from different points of world and Iran on daily basis and especially at Tuesday nights.
It’s found by evidence of architecture and construction that date of establishing this house is early of current century. This house has been bought by Imam Khomeini (PBUH) in 1335 S.H. and was his residential up to 1343 S.H. this is a two storey and simple building consists of basement and ground floor. Courtyard of structure is located at south part and there are covered spaces at north east and west parts.
Position of spaces is in such form that middle stairway divides building into external part from east side and internal part from west side. East side located hall was speech location in previous decades. Many visitors everyday from all over the worlds come to visit this house in memory of a blessed remaining place from Imam Khomeini (PBUH). Rituals also hold according different events in this house.
Mohammad Bin Ibrahim Yahya Shirazi known as Mollasadr is one of the great scientists of the world who was born in Shiraz city. After obtaining fundamentals of sciences in Shiraz, he set forth to Isfahan to complete his knowledge and after acquiring degree in theology and jurisprudence at schools of great philosophers such as Sheikh Bahaei and Mirdamad, because of opposition with some superficial clergies. He left Isfahan and moved to Kohak village in order to purification and divine excursion and other native states 15 years stayed in this place.
Around Hakim's house. There are village houses with hot climate region's architecture. Mollasadra house in Kohak is a memory of those times when this great figure have been resided at Qom. Main plan of structure is a cross formed hall four porches, where some chambers and rooms are surrounded four corners, ground floor and fist floor. Unfortunatley major part of building was ruined and there is left only one chamber out of eight chambers of around hall. Two other chambers were repair project in 1377 S.H. applied embellishments are semi carpet cornices and gypsum lattices in roof lights. At east part of house there is a rather full of water subterranean water bed which is an element of Mollasadra's house complex.
This building is famous as "Mother of Iran's caravanserais" and is one of the largest and oldest available caravanserais of country. It’s origin is assigned to Sassanian Artaxerexes era. this caravanserai had been operational up to Safavid region and many amendments and alterations have been applied to it’s original structure. it’s notable to know that mentioned caravanserai was built on ruins of Aljess abbey Gachin abbey, Kordsheer abbey.
This complex has spaces for mosque, mill, cistern and hammam. Beside entrance gate, there are twoand storey towers and inside caravanserai is a large courtyard with small chambers which are without windows where behind those a all length barns, platform for livestock and an oven are developed. There are large porches at three sides of courtyard and at it’s corners are great Shabestan, hammam, gypsum kiln and also an inner courtyard. One cistern is located outside the structure where rain waters pour into that and collected at rain season.
This carvansarai has been constructed at Safavid era and at Qajar time also served as carvansarai. This structureis square shape where each side is 50m and designed in form of four porch. At four corner of this caravanserai, for semi circular towers and in both sides of entrance gate ten ornamental archs are developed. Beside caravanserai some cisterns was built where serves caravans at their resting period. The whole structure has been constructed with bricks and on foundation of large stones which brought and collected form river.
After evaluating Passangan caravanserai .It was found that foundamentals of caravansarai's architecture is similar to other structures are according to prevalent style, traditions an school of that time Safavid and it’s form generally has not had a specified alternation from old days up to this date. The flat roof has symmetry by it’s arched domes at four corners and this general symmetry is observed. In desert caravanserai, typically to maintain security, very high barriers are developed around caravanserai, where Passangan caravanserai also is not exception and has the same feature. This caravanserai currently is host of interested groups and travelers as a complex of tourism.
This ancient region is under excavation where is one of the Iran's historical distincts. It’s ancient layers are belonged to fourth to first millennium B.C. and it’s important is that demonstrated Qom city oldness to seven thousand years ago. Three distinct periods which are identified in this region are: Old bronze ages 3500 to 2800 B.C. new bronze ages 1800 to1600 B.C. and Iron Age 1500 to 1200 B.C.
Relics of residential units, spaces for virtual, industrial and commercial space are identified in this region.
It’s area is about 330 km. Houz Soltan lake is consisted of two separate large trenches where are named "SoltanPool" and "Death pool" and people often call them "Soltan Houz”. Origin of this swamp of salty water is seasonal rivers and it has highest level of water at beginning of spring. This swamp is accessible from several routes where are located in Tehran and Qom highway.
Residents of it’s surroundings are ranchers or producer of table salt, some parts at it’s vicinity are marshy. Some people take this swamp by mistake as salt lake. Houz Soltan is completely located in Qom province, while salt lake is located at territory region among three provinces of Qom, Isfahan and Semnan and the best access route to that is from Aran and Bidgol cities of Isfahan province. It’s better to have company of local guides in desert routes.
Kohak is one of the most important counties of Qom province where it’s center is Kohak city. This city and it’s vicinity village has temperate mountainous climate and is one of the Qom's summer regions. High mountains beautiful orchards and fresh water are features f this region and it’s advantages are tourism and recreational complexes in this region. Most important villages of Kohak county are Fardow, Vishnow, Karamjegan, Aval, Khaveh and Beedhend.
There are also ancient relics in this region where Shamshirgah ancient district, in Khoorabad village, Saaram hill, Sassanian Seerow castle and Karamjegan's four arch are notable.