Razavi Khorasan is a province located in northeastern Iran. Mashhad is the center and capital of the province. The Greater Khorasan has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties and governments in its territory throughout history. Various tribes of the Arabs, Turks, Kurds, Turkemen and Mongols brought changes to the region time and time again. Ancient geographers of Iran divided Iran into eight segments of which the most flourishing and largest was the territory of Greater Khorasan. Esfarayen, among other cities of the province, was one of the focal points for residence of the Aryan tribes after entering Iran. The Parthian empire was based near Merv in Khorasan for many years. During the Sassanid dynasty the province was governed by a Spahbod called “Padgošban” and four margraves, each commander of one of the four parts of the province. Khorasan was divided into four parts during the Muslim conquest of Persia, each section being named after the four largest cities, Nishapur, Merv, Herat, and Balkh. In the year 651, the army of Islamic Arabs invaded Khorasan. The territory remained in the hands of the Abbasid clan until 820, followed by the rule of the Iranian Taherid clan in the year 896 and the Samanid dynasty in 900. Mahmud of Ghazni conquered Khorasan in 994, and Tuğrul in the year 1037. In 1507, Khorasan was occupied by Uzbek tribes. After the death of Nader Shah in 1747, it was occupied by the Afghan Durrani Empire centered in Qandahar. During the Qajar period, Britain supported the Afghans to protect their East India Company. Herat was thus separated from Persia, and Nasser-al-Din Shah was unable to defeat the British to take back Herat. Finally, the Paris Treaty was concluded in 1903 and Iran was compelled not to challenge the British for Herat and other parts of what is today Afghanistan. Finally Khorasan was divided into two parts: the eastern part, which was the most densely populated region came under British occupation, and the other western section remained part of Iran. Khorasan was the largest province of Iran until it was divided into three provinces on September 29, 2004.
Toos is 20 km far from Mashhad. This great traditional epic poet of Iran who was born in 319 S.H.at Pazh village of Toos district, spend 30 years of his invaluable life to create Shahname. He was died at 401 S.H. and buried at the same place. His tomb's structure has been repaired several times when in the last time; engineer Seihoon demolished old building and reconstructed new one same as old structure. During later years Ostad Abulhassan Khan Sedigui made a statue of Ferdowsi and this memorial assembled at tomb's building.
The same building where designed by engineer Seihoon in order to be traditional tea house, currently is used as museum. In this museum,all discovered relics within Toos plain and all diversified types of Shahnameh are exposed. Mehdi Akhavan Sales who is another great & famous poet of contemporary era and demised in 1369 S.H. also buried beside tomb of great poet of Iran upon his own will.
Distant of lake to Bozangan village is about 5 km. This lake is the only natural lake of Razavi Khorrassan Province where its origin is rain and some small springs under and at vicinity of lake waters. It water is not fresh and salty and its area is about 50 hectare and maximum approximate depth of this lake is 12m. Around the lake, hills and dales are located. Rainbow trout fish culture in this lake and it’s a suitable point for fishing. During autumn and winter. Lake is staying place of migrating birds and there are water and by water fowls in this lak.
Another attractiveness of this lake is Bozangan cave where is nearby village. There is not any facility or tourism utility around the lake and thus it has a natural &intact space. The best visit time of this lake is May, When circumference of lake is green and its vicinity of pains cover with corn poppy flowers.
This district is the only national park of Khorrassan Razavi province . There are three entrance gate to this park included Nowkhandan, Kikavand & Chehelmir where check points of environment protection agents are there. Road of Darehgaz to Chehelmir is one of he beautiful roads of province. Natural appearance of this national park empraces mountains and very deep valleys. Wild life of this region includes gazelle and mountain goat, ram & ewe, panther, pallas wild cat, wolf and jackal. Birds of this region are golden eagle, partridge, dull yellow partridge, grous and owl.
There is not any permanent river in this region and it water is maintained by region's springs. Travel to this regiom needs to obtain permission from environment organization office in Tehran or Khorrassan Razavi provinces.
Glory and Popularity of this city owes to Imamat chain and its eighth superb figure. This huge complex is treasury of diversified Islamic arts during sequential centuries of history and is consisted of ImamReza (PBUH) court, Goharshad mosque, drum house, Razavi Sacred central museum, sheik Tabarrsi tomb, Parizad school and Abassgholi Khan religious school. ImamReza’s (PBUH) haram has 4 porches, 5courts, 3 alter and gold plated tomb.
Tthere are beautiful mosaic inlaid from Seljuk era and generally it may stated that this complex is a whole collection of arts including architecture, mosaic, mirror, macarabe and cornice belonged to different periods of history. Goharshad mosque also is another part of this complex and is one of the largest four porch mosques of Iran which was constructed in 821 A.H. this mosque was developed by order of Goharshad, wife of Shahrokh Teimoori at area of 9039 m2. Structure of drum house is located on east balcony of revolution courtyard. Beating drums is one of the historical traditions of this complex where except two month of Moharram and Saffar & also mourning times, drums are beaten at same hour, two times a day Beating drums is registered as Iran's moral codes. Central building of museum is also another part of this complex where is located in a 4 storey building including 11 different museum.
Nader Shah Afshar, the founder of Afshariyeh dynasty was born 1067 S.H. in Dastjerd one of district of Darehgaz, was the last conqueror of Iran. he was demise in thinking assassinations from people around him, because of this disorder he became cruel in behaviour,therefore by encouraging of his nephew and company of some officers was murdered. Many times his tomb has been repaired where the in last time engineer Seihoon design a new structure in a garden with 14407 m2 area.
On the top of tomb, a large statue of Nader Shah with three soldiers who are dressed in Fars, Turk and Lor clothing under design of Ostad Abul Hassan Khan Sediqui is mounted. There are two halls in this complex where relics of Afshariyeh era are exhibited at these two halls different types of weapons of those days, paintings of Nader shah, horse riding equipments, manuscript of those times, also some pictures and information of Nader and Colonel Mohammad Taghi Khan Pessian are set to be visited by public. Body of Colonel Mohammad Taghi Khan Pessian after many shifts was finally buried in Naderi complex.
This building where has been residence of Haj Hossein Agha Malek is an architectural relics of late period of Qajar era. Haj Hossein Malek was grand son of Malek was grand son of Malekoltojar who was not of the Azerbaijani origin wealthy people which was resident of Mashad and born in Tehran . He was a generous rich man who endowed his numerous properties and wealth. One of his important endowed properties is Malek library and museum in Tehran where was his father's house.
He also has a notable number of endowed properties in Meshed, where his house in this city is one of those endowed properties. This building has two storeys where upper floor has lattice ceiling with wooden carving and a chimney with plaster work. Currently this building is under authority of Mashed center of innovation and research in traditional arts and handicrafts office and craftsmen are busy in making glorious and precious handicraft works in it’s ten active workshops. Public visit of this center and products are available.
Road to moghan village is asphalt and from village to vicinity of cave (About 5km) is dusty where it can be hiked (about 2hours) or driven in jeeps. Cave has 5 galleries, beautiful stalactites and stalagmites. This cave has two entrances opening and its passage way is slippery. Based on gedogical studies. This cave has been developed by decay of lime stones layers and its age is between 30 to 40 million years. Moghan cave may be considered as those caves which first organized group of spelunkers entered it’s inside and terminated its inside and terminated it’s myths.
In 1311 S.H. first organized group belonged to Rasti and Nirou club under supervision of late Manouchehr Mehran and late Bagher Fazel Khorshidi known as Baba Khourshidi visited this cave. Length of this cave was determined to be 620m after conducted topography by society of cave and speleology. Natives of Moghan village are gardening and one of the best products of these people is walnut. Ranking of this cave is first degree. Torch is a required tool in order to enter the cave. There is not any management procedure to visit the cave and it is better to have company or guide.
This is an old water barrier from Teimoorian dynasty where has developed across Golestan river. Some archeologists assign it’s construction to Shahrokh son of Teimoor and others to Goharshad who was his wife. Height of this structure is 21m and its length of current crest is 130m and height of it’s overflow also is 20.
Circumference of this weir is mountainous with beautiful view where is accounted an as recreational place of province. There are beating and tourism facilities around this place.this weir are belonged to Razavi Asstan Qods devoted properties.
This region has mountain climates and abundance of orchards where Torgabah is one of the recreational points around Meshed city. This earth dam with clay core is developed across Jaghargh River. Around the dam landscapes have been developed and there is Chalidareh tourism complex beside the lake and facilities and utilities such as restaurant, coffeeshop, funfair and alcoves are available.
Watere sprits and fishing are possible in this lake. However, because of high traffic in this region and motorboats during day time, the place is not suitable for fishing.
The beautiful tomb of this wise scientist and theologian poet of Iran is located in a very nice open space (designea) as a piece of art and in aesthetic architecture by engineer Houshang Seihoon in 1341 S.H. people mostly know Khayam because of his quatrains, but he was superb in philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and medical science and at his time was considered as one of the distinct scientists. By order of Malek Shah saljuk, he in accompany with some scientists of those times modified available calendar &developed Jallali calendar.
After his demise he was buried in Heira cemetery of Neishabour city.in1338 S.H. new tomb was constructed for him and transferred to this location. Beside his tomb there is a museum based on astronomy and cosmology issues and embraces geomancy equipments, compass and images of signs of yhe Zoadic, metal dishes, earthen warres, astronomy, manuscripts and statues of Khayyan and Fitzgerald (a investigator of Khayyam). This museum working hours is 8 a.m. to 3p.m. but khayam's tomb area is opens permanently for interested visitors. Every year 18th of may is memory day of this great philosopher.
Attar is one of the great Gnostic of Iran land, who was admired by Mowlana and later favored by Attar's view of life when was traveling from Balkh to westwards.
Attar has written many books in Gnostics philosophy where some of them were vanished and lost amongst the most important books of this great Gnostic,it may pointed to TazakarehalOlia Mantagh al teir,asranameh,Elahinameh,Mokhtarnameh,lyrics poem and elegiac poem
A very beautiful and worth seeing valley where embraces 4 waterfalls with heights of more than 40m length of path between village to waterfalls is about 3 km and it takes 1 to 2 hours on foot. Waterfalls track to third waterfall is rather a light mountain hiking. There are more waterfalls perpetual in this valley where are seasonal and these three are level of water of these waterfalls also varies depending on years seasons and is highest at spring time.
In winters due to cold climate and mountainous atmosphere of this place. Waterfalls freez and situation is good to be used for hike on ice ground. Natural panorama and scenes of Akhelmmad wan enlisted in natural relics in 1390 and this location is one of the recreational points in province.
The 20 km route of Golkan to green spring is dusty, mountainous and uneven (Dirty road). Around like also is mountainous space.It’s better to take this road in a jeep or four wheel car. This spring is locatd at northern foots of Binaloud mountains range. Water flux of this spring is very high and this flow developed a small natural lake with 15 hectares area.
There are yellow feathered fish in this lake and has a very calm environment for fishing. Water of this lake is used for nearly farm lands and orchards irrigation.
This subterranean water way is the "longest and most saturated one in Gonabad regio”. of this subterranean stream is 33113m and it has 270 wells where the deepest one is 200m, it’s accounted longest subterranean stream in the world. Another distinct feature of this stream is it’s antiquity. This is the oldest subterranean steam in the world which it’s oldness returns to Achaemenids and even older than era.
Constructing such structure with primitive equipments is a masterpiece in engineering. It’s said that its waters flux rate used to be 600 liter per second but now its flux is 160 L/S. This relic is registered in Iran's national relic list and some proceeding were taken to register that in UNESCO list. Implementation some tourism design for this subterranean stream is ongoing.