Semnan is the capital city of Semnan Province, Iran. Semnan is located 216 kilometers east of Tehran in north central Iran. It is home to Semnani languages and is known as Seman locally. The city offer various recreational activities, historical and religious sites, festivals, gardens and parks, colleges and universities, and Semnani culture. The city serves as the cultural and political capital of the Semnan Province. The city’s main souvenirs are daffodil flowers, Shirmal pastry, Kolüçe cookies, kilim rugs, and shortbread. Most travelers to Iran tend to visit Esfahan, Shiraz, Yazd or some of the world famous destinations. In Iran there are, however, a number of other interesting places, perhaps less known outside the country, but offering pleasant surprises to those interested in history, architecture and folk traditions. One of such destinations is the city of Semnan, the capital of the province with the same name.
This complex embraces relics of second century A.H. Saljuk era and after Saljuk different periods. The oldest structure in this complex is monastery of a great Gnostic of Persia named Abu Yazid Teifoor Bin Aaiss Bin Soroushan Basstami where is belonged to second century A.H. it’s a very plain tomb next to porch and Dome of Ghazan Khan is location of monastery. Other included relics are, Bayazid monastery: this structure with antiquity of long as 702 A.H. is consisted of three small rooms inter connected to each other where having short ceilings.
Basstam minaret: it’s built in 514 A.H. at Saljuk eras. Height of this structure is 14m.
Second mosque of Bayazid Basstami: constructed in sixth and seventh centuries A.H. it has altered with gypsum works with beautiful appearance.
Basstam principal mosque: this mosque was built during 700 to 706 A.H. by order of Ghazan Khan. It has two place for nocturnal prayers for summer and winter seasons and a uncovered nave. This mosque's alter with interesting moldings is one of the most significant samples of moulding. Tomb of Imam 's son named Mohammad is another part of this complex where remains from Ghazan Khan era during 670 to703 A.H. tomb is belonged to one of the sons of Imam Mohammad Sadegh. Imam's son burial place is in symmetry with Ghazan Khan's dome. Ghazan Khan dome: is beautiful and conic where is covered with mosaics in turquoise color. Al Jaitoo's corridor and porch: this structure includes portal and passage way to court of Imam's son tomb and is build n Sultan Aljaitoo era.
Kashan tower: this tower is constructed in 700 A.H. height of tower is 20m and it’s elevation is with denticles and has 30 track up to dome looking as cornice.
Shahrokhieh school: it’s built at shahroof Timurid era. School has square courtyard and some chambers at two storey structure in it’s surrounding.
Princess Afghan tomb: it’s next to Bayazid tomb where is built in 1286 A.H.
Access road to this region is through Ghalaabala village. This region enlisted in the list of 9 Iran's biosphere reservoirs in1976. This region is the most notable place of Iranian zebra and snow leopard. Region is consisted of low water plains and grass land with steppe plants coverage, together with desert and semi desert environment.
Popular mammals of this region are: chinkara, gizelle, ewe and ram, goat and antelope, leopard, hyena, wolf, fox and jackal. Birds of this region are: golden jay, bustard, courser, desert lark, desert goldfinch and khaki partridge. Ghalaabala village is also a green village at edge of desert where is worth seeing attractiveness's of this park's circumference. There is a very old plane tree next to it’s theatre of passion plays.
Date of development of this structure returns back to years from 120 up to 170A.H. this mosque is the second oldest mosque of Iran after fahraj mosque of Yazd city where has one minaret as well. This mosque is also built under Sassanian architecture and in merely simple design. The used materials in building this mosque are brick and sun dried brick where bricks are utilized in arches and columns, but sun dried bricks were used in other parts of it’s structure.
Mosque has a square shaped courtyard where a columned par lour is at one of it’s side and in three sides some porticoes are developed. Central nave is covered with gypsum and lime.
Considering excavations where are conducted n this region anddiscovered relics at this hill's site, the location has three historic periods of barrier 1, barrier 2 and barrier 3. This region is probably was residential from 3600 to 300 B.C. and after that abandoned.
First group of researchers, under supervision of Eric Schmitt conducted some excavations in 1312 S.H. and uncovered relics and structures from earth coverage.
This castle had applications as different period of history and is recalled in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh as Gonabad Dezh. This ancient fort is more famous because of its resident's resistance against Ismaeilieh governors. Because of it’s advantageous geographical situation, this fort was one of the most UN conquerable forts of Ismaeilieh. In this era this castle resisted 20 years against Mongols siege.
Fort is constructed at the top of a mountain with height of about 1000m. It has three covered cisterns where are located at southern part. Most of the parts of this castle are made of stone and mortar of lime and ashor sand (Sarooj). Water of cisterns are maintain through a stream to Pikhar spring. Since 800A.H. up to this date this castle has not been used for any purpose and purpose and is going to ruin completely. Unfortunately there is only a ruin on top of mountain has left of this structure.
This desert is confined to Dolat dyar mountain, Hess and Torkman mountains from south and from southwest to Panj and Sorkh mountains where at west of this desert is Farat county and Damghan Kavir is at it’s north, east of that also is Ahoond mountain.
Aea of this desert is about 2400 km2. It has a seasonal salt lake where at rain season, water is collected into desert and after evaporation beautiful salt polygons will be formed. Around this desert there are swampy plots. Like other deserts it’s recommended not to enter desert without native guide.
Development of mosque returns back to Seljuk era but traces of many repairs at Ilkhanate, Teimoorian and Qajar era are evident. The most beautiful part of mosque is it’s brick built balcony with 21m height. Width of this balcony is 10m and embellishes with epigraphs of Teimory era in thuluth script. North prayer parlor (Shabestan) embraces 16thick columns with barrel vault where was built at Saljuk era.
South prayer parlour also has 16 columns in the middle and 8 semi columns in the eastern part where has been developed at Arghoon Khan era. Eastern nocturnal prayer parlour also constructed at Teimoor Gourkani era and at it’s corner a minarete is erected. Height of this minarate is 28.5 meters.
This beautiful structure has been developed at Qajar era. It’s consisted of two northern and southern (Hazrat bazaar) parts where before this date was connected to each other and integrated. At Pahlavi region developing an avenue divided bazaar into two parts. This bazaar is consisted of parts such as caravanserai, hammam, arcades and theatre of passion plays.
Portal of both north and south divisions are brick made having beautiful mosaic work and a distinct epigraph made of azure mosaic in thulth script including a part of Baghareh chapter of Quran demonstrates on surface. Pahneh hammam museum is also stands beside semnan old bazaar passage and has been constructed about 600 years ago by Timurid governors. This complex is registered in Iran's national relics and has an area of 1000 m2 with very beautiful mosaic works. It’s domed ceiling has roof lights. This hammam is currently archaeology museum.
Semnan citadel as scripts as scripts of it’s epigraph suggests was built in 1302 Nasseroldeen Shah Qajar and governorship Anoushirvan Mirza who was governor of Semnan. At time being there is not much remaining of citadel barrier and only it’s portal of entrance is standing. There are two beautiful arches at two sides of portal with delicate mosaic works. 6 ornamental minarets at top of portal add value to it’s beauty.
At top of portal in one of two sides a mosaic work manifests rostam and white demon fight and in other side the string of words demonstrating AlSultun Bin Soltun Nasseroldeen Shah Qajar.
This region is consisted of parvar village and other villages such as Kavard, Tammam, Talajeem, Finnesk and Molladeh. The best route to access this zone is Shahmirzad to Foolad mahaleh route. Bescause of it’s height comparing to Semnan city and it’s mountain climate is summer locations of province. Since it’s near to Alborz range, it has diversified flora species and the higher lands of zone beautiful forests are seen.
Fauna species in this zone are: goat and goat and antelope, ewe and ram, deer and capreolus deer, leopard, bear, boar and gizelle. Birds are in species of snow cock, Iranian robin and goshawk.
This region is located at border line of Semnan and Golestan provinces. Vegtation coverage at lower heights is forest like including diversified plants and at higher points are pastures and grassland. This region is common space between two ecosystems of forest and semi desert (Ecotone).
Alborz heights, because of having Caspian humidity climate has desired conditions and mainly used as summer location for south and north Alborz.
This region is consisted of some parts of east Alborz Mountains from limits of humid jungles in the north to semi dried steppes and covered with Artemisia central plateau of Iran at south. Popular mammals of this district are: ewe and ram, goat and antelope.
Ounce leopard, panther, gizelle, zebra, deer and capreolus deer, brown bear and wild cat. Birds of this zone are snow cock, Iranian robin, bearded vulture and golden eagle.
There are only a village named Roodbarak in this region and has residents only in summer time. It’s named after several flowing rivers in the region. Proximaty of wide leaf trees jungles and pleasant and cool climate to desert cities make this region one of the summer recreational places in province.
This beautiful valley in the highlands of the Kelardasht, together with the Alamkuh and Tahkt-e Soleyman mountain peaks, is commonly called Iran's Switzerland. Being in the center of the famous peaks, the dense forests of Abbas-Abad on the shores of Caspian Sea and Kelardasht often make Roodbarak the departure point for nature exploration.
There are two caves known as Darband bala and Darband payeen in this region. This cave is located in Darband payeen where is at distance of 100m from upper cave. Cave structure in geological view is belonged to second period and made of sedimentary stones because of water erosion. Length of cave is 140m and is located at height of 2058m, sea level. Cave entrance is located 300m higher than mountain's foot where a reasonable path was made by stone stairway.
The widest part of this cave is 36m and highest point of it’s ceiling reaches to 20m. First explorations and visit of this cave which is registered when Iran speleologist delegation under supervision of changeez Sheikhli stayed three days inside cave and provided a complete report of Darband payeen cave. This cave is one of the most beautiful caves of Iran where high rise columns of stalagmites can be seen inside that. One of it’s stalagmites by having 14m height is unique. Regarding largeness of gallery and thicknesses of lime columns, this cave is notable although because of mistakes by visitor in lighting fire inside the cave. Most of it’s stalagmites are damaged and blackened. There is a large gallery inside the cave where has a very beautiful natural pond having undrinkable water with concentrated minerals. However because of recent years of drought this pond is going to dry. At entrance of cave some relics of earthenware's are discovered which belong to first millennium. Darband bala cave has not any necessary visit facilities and splunk expertise and related equipments are needed, length of this cave is 40m and have not any beautiful elements of caves such as stalagmites or stalactites or stalactites. Stone step way goes only to Darband payeen cave. Development of stairway, beautiful lightening of inside the cave and development of welfare facilities around the cave make interested visitors to come to this place. Proximity of this cave to super cities of Tehran and Semnan and also it’s location on pilgrimage to sacred Meshed make position of this place very suitable. Furthermore it’s vicinity to summer time city of shahmirzad with pleasant climate put other attractiveness beside this cave. Taking its passage way through stairs is only difficult for aged ones and other age groups. Have not any notable difficulty inside the cave or on this caves passage ways. Considering it’s proximity to Mehdishahr and Shahmirzad, a very high tourism potential assigned to develop this place and a residential facility is constructed in it’s vicinity in order to provide services to visitors.
Oldness of this mosque returns to Kharizmshahian dynasty. Area of this structure is 820 m2, having two north and south porches. Together with a place for nocturnal prayers beside south porch is larger than opposed north porch.
Mosque's entrance portal is located at north side and embellished with cornices and brick work.
It’s located at about 40 km south west of Garmsar city. Desert national park is one of the oldest protected zones in Iran and has much importance because of having historical and natural attractiveness. Popoular fauna species of the park are snow leopard, gazelle, chinkara, goat and antelope, ewe and ram, leopard, bustard and golden jay. Another natural attractiveness of this park are it’s desert attractiveness's and beautiful views and is one of the suitable places for observing stars and also is near Tehran.
This region embraces important historical relics such as stone paved road, Bahram palace carvansarai and Einolrasheed carvansari where a brief description of these relics are brought in the following. It’s needed to state that entrance passage to park from Grammar city requires four wheel cars and permission from environment organization is compulsory. Stone paved road one of the most attractive features of national park of desert is stone paved road. Length of this road is 35 km and it’s width is 5m was constructed at Safavid era. Route of this way is swampy in winters but it was constructed in such style where caravans were able to pass . This road is made of coal and stones in very high thickness. Along this road there are two bridges under the names of white bridge and black bridge was constructed across two seasonal rivers where the white bridge is still applicable.
Bahram palace carvansarai: this structure was erected at Safavid era and also is known as Abbassabad caravanserai. There are four towers at each corner of building where two structures like half of a complete tower located between each towers. This caravanserai has been constructed in form of four porch structure with an octagonal courtyard. Around the courtyard, there located 24 chambers and barns were behind these chambers. Entrance way is located at north and south sides.
Einolrasheed caavansarai: this structure is located within 3 km distant from Bahram palace carvansarai. There are four circular towers at it’s four corners and one short tower at north, south and west sides. Around the courtyard 22 chambers are located at entrance portal some embellishments including composition of mosaic and brick appear.