South Khorasan is located in eastern Iran. Birjand is the centre of the province. The other major cities are Ferdows, Tabas and Qaen. In 2014, it was placed in Region 5. This new province, is but the old Quhistan which was included into greater Khorasan in the Iranian administrative planning. However, historically Qohistan forms a separate entity, with a distinct culture, history, environment and ecology. South Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan in 2004. While at the beginning, the newly created “South Khorasan” included only Birjand County and some new counties detached from that county (i.e. Nehbandan, Darmian and Sarbisheh), in subsequent years, all northern and western cities and territories of the old Quhistan (such as Qaen, Ferdows and Tabas) have been annexed into the South Khorasan.
This castle has been constructed by order of Mirza Bagha Khan who was governor of region and his son Mirza Ratiaa Khan at Afsharieh era. Date of construction returns back to 1160 A.H. materials such as stone, brick and gypsum and motor of lime & sand are used in it’s construction. There are very high walls with dentils embracing some holes for watchmenand two guard towers around the castle. East gate which is larger has been main gate of this castle. Inside castle, some structures such as residential, mosque, cistern, barn, where developed.
At highest point this was dais. This castle wasconqured at first Shokatolmolk reign by his hosts and after that was non residential and abandoned. Furthermore, this castle had been the second most important castle for Ismaeilian dynasty after a lamoot castle.
Hemmatabad village is one of the suitable locations in order to see mentioned desert. Attractiveness in this region is pert Regan playa. This playa is located on territory line with Afghanistan and a part of this playa is in Afghanistan's land. This region is very attractive as geotourism and because of it’s location at side of Ahangaran mountain range has very rich ecological diversity.
In this region tribes spend winter and they are very nice hosts for tourists. Entry to this beautiful desert territory must be in company with local guide.
One of the superb features of this region is using dark sky of desert. Three castles (Se Ghalaah) observant is located at Mohammad Abad playa and is considered as new movement towards Iranian's Amateur astronomy. Beside beauties of desert, it would be an attractive and unforgettable travel if a complementary attractiveness such as this observation which has numerous fans specially amounst the youth being available.
Playa is a clay land without or with very little salt. These locations usually have flat & smooth surfaces where may be applicable as landing runway of planes.
Development of these monument and garden began at Zandiyeh era and terminated at First Pahlavi reign. Area of garden is three and half hectare and consist of surrounding fences, portal, main building and service space primary function of this complex was governor's seat and has 2000 m2 built area, currently there are three museum of anthropology, archalogy and wild life together with a traditional food house in main building. Main structural axis of garden is longitudinal symmetry axis, on which tall pine trees and box trees are formed along this axis.
At the end of this path, mansion is located where there is also a pond in front of building and a very beautiful reflection of this mansion appears on pond's water. Building is consisted of two storey and the most significant parts of that are mirror house, central par lour and dome a pavilion. There are cypress, pinetree, ash tree, pomogronade, pistachio, pear, apricot, and peach trees in this garden. This garden has been registered by UNESCO.
This garden and it’s mansion are built at Qajar era. The complex is consisted of fence, portal, watch men's towers, main mansion named pond house, Naranjestan building, garden, barn and service space.
Main mansion used to be governor's seat and Narenjestan building was used as harem of the complex where located at south of garden. Garden's trees were, pomogronade, apple, grapes, pear, cypress, plane tree, poplar, trembling poplar and pine tree.
This region has lower height comparing to its circumference and surface waters are collected at its center. Collection of surface waters lead to growth of reeds and gathering of birds in this region.
However, these reed beds grow at spring and dry in summer time, but existence of these reed beds in desert is one of province's attractiveness.
This garden has been constructed by order of Mirza Hassan Khan who was the third appointed governor of Tabbass by Nader Shah Afshar at Afshariyeh era. This park which currently is a public park and Tabbass's recreational. Points has area of 8 hectare. Inside this garden where has been developed in compliance to Iranian garden architecture, there are two crossed water streams.
Thousand fruit trees and different species of plants are planted in this garden. At center point of this garden, there is a pond where is habitat of two pelicans and these birds are very familiar with visitors which this attitude is one of features of this garden.
This village with multi-level architecture is located at foot of Naiband Mountain and because of it’s multi level structure is called "Massouleh of desert." It's a desert located village having hot summer and temperate winters. Applied materials to develop village's houses are sun dried brick and mud where are on foundations of revetment. In order to keep houses cool in summer time, width of walls are thick and windows are in small dimensions.
This green desert village where has many citrus and palm gardens is watered by springs & subterranean waters. At 10 km from village in south direction, there is also Dig Rostam hot spring.
It’s derived route has asphalt and a beautiful and incredible defile through desert. Construction date of this dam returns to first centuries of Islam and it may be stated that: this dam is the oldest dam in history and one of the good examples of water control by our ancestors, also a masterpiece of engineering at the heart of desert. There are many quotations about it’s date of construction and these show that it’s date is before fifth century A.H. this dam is an arch of 60m height and crown width of 1m where is developed on a very narrow part of valley.
The location of arch also demonstrates intelligence of developers in finding the best point in order to construct dam. Now, the new Karit dam is developed in front of ancient dam so as to protect old and historical karit dam, this place is accounted as one of recreational places of Tabbas city and residents of around the dam spend a day of their leisure time beside lake of dam.
In this region at the top of mountain a huge opening hole with 20m diameter is developed by water cause erosions and created a very beautiful view. This hole is visible from Pelound road and many interested people and desert hiker travel to this region to see this natural view. The short road to this mountain is dusty. Mozaffari cave also is 2 km off this mountain. Reeg Youz also is near pelound village and this region. Mozzafari protected zone has 92 thousands hectares area where is located at south of Ebrahim abad village.
Wildlife of this region embraces ram & ewe, antelope and mountain goat, wolf, gazelle, caracal cat, fox, porcupine, falcon, quail, partridge, grouse, rock dove, yellow raven, raven, hyna, jackal, eagle, kestrel, gold eagle, wheater, lizard, different species of snakes, nuthatch and tortoise.
History of this spring functionality returns back to 200 years ago. Water of this hot spring is of class chloride and Biocarbonate type and having iron as well. This spring's water is useful in rheumatic diseases, joint and neurotic pains uascular diseases treatments. Several building were constructed during this long period of time in order to use this spring’s water.
Now, this place of mineral water spring has facilities and utilities such as separate men and women hammams equipped with private bathtub, residential suites, restaurant, children's playground and parking lots. Since this hot spring is located on the transit main route, many interested people arrive to this place and it’s accounted as tourism of province.
Construction of this building returns back to sixth and seventh century A.H. this place is burial point of Bouzarjomehror Bozorgmehr who was a great Gnostics and politicians of fourth and fifth century A.H. living at Ghaznavid era and was vizier of Sultan Mahammad Ghaznavid and after that vizier of Sultan Massoud Ghaznavid. Form of building is cross shaped having four porches tombs with a dome at the top of structure.
There are beautiful cornices to embellish interior space of tomb. He was wise philosopher and elegant minded poet who beautiful elegies in Persian and Arabic languages are available of him. This building is registered in Iran's national relics list. beside the tomb, an old turpentine tree with age of about 700 years stands which increases building beauty, moreover that old trees are sacred and respected to Iranian’s. Saffaron is the most important product of this city and because of this, it is named "red gold city."
This region is located at northern part of loot desert and Dehsalm village is accounted as entrance gate to loot desert and passage way to Kerman and Shahdad yardangs. As locat mythology, two brothers named salm and Seif were lost in desert and in order to find survival they took different routes, to reach some residence place. Of these two brother Salm reached this point and Seif reached another village at south distinct within Kerman province where currently is named Dehseif village and is located at north of Shahdad city at the entrance passage way to visit yardangs of desert.
These two villages are 220 km apart each other. Route of connection between these two villages is completely non residence and is one of the dream roads of desert. This road even today should not be taken without local guide.
Heidarabad is one of the entrance gates to Reeg Yalan district. In Reeg Yalan the most elevated dunes are visible. Nahbandan is one of the beautiful dessert cities and is at significant position. Dehsalam is located at it’s southwest and Heidarabad is located at South of Nahabandan to be at two sides of Loot desert. It’s portable that, the hottest point on earth is located at these limits and because of this it can beconsidered a superb attractiveness of tourism in Iran.
Another attractiveness of this part of Iran's vast land is Asebads (windmills) because of blowing of winds in a period of time which is known as 120 day winds, utilizing windmills are prevalent in this region. Very suitable examples of these windmills can be seen in Khansharif village.