Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and it has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area. In the Classical era, part of the territory of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rhages, a prominent Median city. It was subject to destruction following the Arab, Turkic, and Mongol invasions. Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, in order to remain within close reach of Iran’s territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, and to avoid the vying factions of the previously ruling Iranian dynasties. The capital has been moved several times throughout the history, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran. The city was the seat of the Qajars and Pahlavis, the two last monarchies of Iran. It is home to many historical collections, including the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa’dabad, and Niavaran, as well as the country’s most important governmental buildings of the modern era. Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, and Tehran has been a destination for the mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century.
This complex is a memory of Tehran's citadel during last 200 years and residence of Qajar King. However, construction of this building began from safvid era and at first Shah Abbas times a structure in form of four gardens and an area of plane tress was developed at northern part of this complex where monarchical residence was built in this part of complex. However, there is not any remnant of that residential building. The oldest constructions within this complex are marble throne Karimkhani solitude is a three arch large porch where there is a pond of subterranean water at it’s center
Agha Mohammad khan Qajar after exhumation of Karimkhan grave, buried his bones in this place. Marble throne porch is also built in 1173 A.H. and was named Diwankhaneh or Daral amareh porch. This place was used to hold levee. This building was named after a marble throne which was constructed by order of Fathyali Shah in 1220 A.H. marble throne is a high marble walled, platform that is sited on three demons, six angels and eleven spiral columns. At Nasseroldeen Shah era, some buildings such as mirror hall, salam hall, Aaj hall or brilian hall's mess room and dormitory structure added to this complex development of mirror hall or Golestan hall began in 1291A.H. and because of abundant of embellishments it’s termination reached up to 1299 A.H. this small hall because of its beautiful and delicate mirror work and also a tableau of great artist of Iran named late Kamalolmolk is very famous. Development of Salam hall also was developed concurrently with mirror hall, this hall supposed to be museum and because of formal ceremonies which was held in this hall. The name hall is (Salam) hall. Currently some precious relics such as Takhte Tavoos and Jewell ornamental Chair of Mohammad shah are preserve in this hall also Brilian hall is located. In later, foreign gesture welcome at the time being, brilian hall is exhibition hall of precious relics. Dormitory building also was built in 1339A.H. and is residence of foreign quests. At the south part of palace also several building are located, structures such a lower building, tent house and Almas hall. Lower building was built atf Fathali Shah Era. This building has a large hall which has decorated bye beautiful paintings, mirror, work, cornices and fretwork. At lower level ground beside this hall, there is a large pond house which has four louvers at it’s four corners, these louvers are ornamented by very beautiful mosaic works. Almas hall also was developed at Fathali shah era. This hall is named after its beautiful mirror works. Abyaz palace is located within west part of Golestan palace district and it’s date of built is 1308A.H. This place was built In order to preserve presents of Ottaman sultan Abdul Hamid and was office of grand vizier of state. This building has been anthropology museum since 1347S.H. Shamsolammareh is one of the buildings which are located at eastern part of Golestan palace. This building was constructed in 1282A.H. by order of Nasseraldeen shah. It’s internal embellishments and mirror work, cornice and beautiful painting. Currently lower floor of this building is book showroom.
This portal was build in 1340A.H. in soldiers drill field since after a period of time, all soldiers drill fields changes to parks or national garden. This structure has three huge doors made of iron having arched roof. Middle door is larger than other two and on it’s top a chamber similar to pavilion with gable roof is developed this roof chamber has windows at both sides of it’s door. This chamber was kettledrum house and sunrise and sunset were announced from this place at proper intervals. At the top of ceiling there are two mosaic works embedding lion and sun and Iran flag patterns.
At two sides of lion and sun pattern two verses "in the name of God" and Triumph comes from God very soon are made with moasaics. Around this portal in the course of times and gradually some building such as ministry of foreign affairs, malek library and museum and Iran National Library has been developed.
Design of this museum was given to Andre Godar French architect in 1308 S.H. and it’s construction started in 1313 S.H. Sassanian patterns were used in designing this structure. Total built area of this museum is 2744 m2. There are relics from seventh millenium B.C. up to Islamic era in this museum. In 1367 S.H. another building was developed at east of original building and Islamic relics are separated and transferred to new building.
This museum is one of the amplest museum in Iran.
Area of this complex is 11 hectares and embraces some building of Qajar and Pahlavi times. At beginning a small garden and villa was built in this location by order of Fathali Shah, then gradually other buildings also developed in this area and added to complex. One of the most important structures of Qajar era is Sahebqaraniyeh palace. This palace was developed under order of Nasseraldin Shah in 1267 A.H. a part of this palace has been exhibition place of all dedicated presents to Pahlavi dynasty and this part of palace called "Jahan Nama" museum.
Another building of this complex is Ahmad shah mansion where was built at Qajar era by order of Ahmad Shah and was residence of Reza Pahlavi at second Pahlavi era. Other than these, an important building of this complex is specified Niavaran palace at the Northeast of area where has been residence place of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his family since 1347 S.H. up to Islamic revolution. This garden, other than being a historical relic is a prosperous green garden with very old trees and half a day is needed to be seen thoroughly.
Area of this complex is 110 hectare. Complex has two main gates where it’s south entrance is at the end of Zaafaraniyeh avenue and north entrance is in Darband square, at Qajar era, Saadabad complex was used as summer palace and at Reza Shah reign, after expansion adhering more lands to it, change to be a summer residence at Pahlavi era,18 palaces and numerous building were built within this copmlex, where more of them changed to museum palace or museum and open for public to visit. List of included museum of this complex are as mentioned in it’s website.
All museums are open every day except Monday and mourning days against entrance ticket. This complex also has internet website www. sadmu.ir. Followings are museums:
1. Mellat museum palace (white palace) this palace was summer residence of MohammadReza Shah and his queen and currently is ready to be visited same as befor.
2. Green museum palace: this palace has been residence of Reza Khan since 1307. Green museum palace is located at high point of U112t at northwest of Saadabad palaces complex.
3. Royal dishes museum: this building was constructed by order of Reza Shah for Ashraf (twin sister of Shah) in 1315-1318S.H. this museum embraces more than 500 dishes and ornamental relics where are exhibited in5 halls and two storeys. Exhibited dishes are divided into three categories known as Qajar dishes, second Pahlavi and dedicated dishes which were bought at conditions or special ceremonies or presented as gift to second Pahlavi and his family.
4. Ostad Farshchiyan museum: this building is a Qajar relic with about 600 m2 area where was residence of Reza Shah and his fourth wife named queen Essmat. This museum currently embroad more than 50 works of Ostad Farshchiyan paintings. This museum is inaugurated in 1380 S.H.
5. Contemporary history and handicrafts museum (art & people) this building was summer palace of Shams Pahlavi and for a period of time was used as museum to store precious relics. After revolution was used as anthropology museum since 1388 S.H. it has been prepared for visitors to see relics under place’s name contemporary history and Pahlavi dynasty royal gifts.
6. Fine art museum: construction of this building was begun at Reza Khan Era and after his exile, the work interrupted incomplete at MohammadReza Shah era, it’s construction was completed and since 1346 S.H. has been used formally as ministery of royal court. This museum exhibits very beautiful and interesting painting of different schools and styles which are popular in Iran and world.
7. Military museum: This museum was built at Reza Khan era and for some times was residence of Tajolmolouk who was second wife of Reza Shah and mother of Mohammadreza Shah and during Pahlavi times was under authority of Shahram, son of Ashraf and also was a place for military weapons collecton. Since 1362S.H.after transfer of military museum from officer’s college by military ideology organization, this place has been equipped and prepared to be visited by public as military museum.
8. Royal Cookery museum: this building was special cookery of white palace (Mellat) and now also may be by public at same condition of active times.
9. Royal automobiles museum: this museum started its activity in 1389 S.H. at a temporary location and then transfer to a new built location. Museum embraces automobiles which were used by Pahlavi dynasty.
10. Royal court weapons museum: this building was residence of Gholam Reza Pahlavi, brother of Mohammad Reza, now there are 70 types of firearms such as hunting, war time, side arms and their accessories which belonged to second Pahlavi and courtiers.
11. Nation's Art museum: it was previously Farah Pahalavi art museum which was used by her and people around her. Collection of works in this museum have bought from all parts of world or been presented.
12. Calligraphy museum of Miremmad: it’s one of the Qajar building where was residence of Farahnaz and Alireza two children of Mohammadreza Shah. Since 1376S.H. this place has begun it’s activities as calligraphy museum where included calligraphy art works belonged to history of 10 centuries.
13.Omidvar brothers museum: It’s a building of Qajar era where was coach house and rest place of coach drivers. Now, this building is host of several memories related to Omidvar brother's numerous travels.
14. Ostad Hossein Behzad museum: at first Pahlavi era, the name of this place was Karbassi palace and was office and rest palace of Reza Khan and then was used as summer mansion of Reza Pahlavi from his childhood to adolescense under the name of "crown prince palace." At the time being, in this museum 289 miniatures of Ostad Behzad are exhibited.
15. Water museum: this building was specified office of MohammadReza Pahlavi where he hosts courtiers and his guests. This museum currently includes traditional utensils, replicas of buildings and related documentations.
16. Saadabad historical documentations museum: this place was base of Royal Javidan Guard. This museum embrace all official corresponding and administrative letters, list of properties & wealth of Monarch family, letters related to palaces management, all kinds of stamps, albums and other personal marks.
17. Museum and hall of eternal figures: this complex is one of the Qajar buildings. Since 1386S.H. it was used for this purpose and included with images and mosaics of 230 Irans’s contemporary figures of art, science and culture fields as embellishments. Beside these collections of museum it’s worth to mention green environment of this large garden. This museum's garden is extended a long Darband river from north towards south and consisted of vegetation coverage of natural forest of diversified species of needle shaped pine and broad leaf trees.
Since long, Tehran Bazaar is the most important economy center of country and up to this date has kept it’s role as economy center. Oldness of this bazaar returns back to Shah Tahmassb Safvid in 930 to 948A.H. years. Four markets which is named napped carpet markers, sack markers, weavers and ferries are the oldest parts of Tehran bazaar, during Fathali Shah and Nasseraldeen Shah, bazaar continued to expand and some small bazaars also were built around old parts.
It may point to Marvi bazaar as one of these small bazaars which is remained since Fathali Shah era, Today, it may be named the most important parts if we list bazaar portal at Sabzeh Meidan,Amir bazaar,large foursuks,Hajebdolleh arcades, and also Alladolleh Qeysarieh and Mahdieh arcades.large foursuks is a structure within bazaar space that was developed in 1222 A.H. This structure is octagonal with a circular and rather short dome where inside of dome has cornices. Two mosques named Imam Khomeini and Tehran principal mosque are inside limits of Tehran bazaar and both are considered as historical relics. Imam khomeini mosque was built at Fathali Shah era and principal mosque of Tehran was probably built at second Shah Abbass. Distance between two mosques is called Beinoalharamain
Davood’s parentage is Imam Zeinol Aabedeen (PBUH). This tomb is one of the sacred places that are located around Tehran, where is visited specially in summer time. Original building may has oldness of Safavid era where was ruined by flood and current building was built on old foundations at Fathali Shah time.
It’s features are tall stem of it’s dome it’s sharp pointed dome that is visible from long distance tomb is located inside a cellar and this fact also is a special feature of this place.
Date of this building construction returns to700A.H. Saleh is brother of Imam Reza (PBUH). In different courses of time. This building has been damaged partially or completely. However, was repaired again by contributions of benevolent people. This place is also a sacred point in Tehran city and many pilgrims visit that everyday .
There is a very old plain tree which nowadays it’s not remained too much of that in cemetery of this complex and beside it’s tomb, popular public figures such as Mirza Hassan Khan Mootamenalmolk, Mirza Hassan Khan Moshiroldoleh, Marshal Tonkaboni, Peernia, Dr. Heshmat were buried.
This tower was completed in 1387 S.H. and is a symbol of Iran’s capital. Height of this tower is 435m and is sixth tallest tower of world. One of the notable and distinct points in tower architecture is it’s Islamic Persian architecture were it’s constructed of different parts. At lower part of tower, there is a six storey building with two basements and other 4 are composed of entrance lobby and 3 floors are assigned to commercial outlet and restaurant.
Another part of tower is it’s peak’s structure where is constructed in12 storey and included open observation platform, close observation platform, art free gallery, sky dome and revolving resturant. At the top part of tower’s peak, telecommunication antenna post is developed. Around the tower some resorts such as dolphinarium, ranger rolling are available.
At Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar era and selecting Tehran as capital city by him, eastern lands of this city were entitled to be reserved for Royal hunting ground and were protected. Regarding this history, it may state that Khajeer national park is oldest protected zone in whole world. These two jungles parks which are next to each other and are located near limits of Tehran province’s Environment organization general office are at status that Khajee is known as national park and Sorkheh Hessar is a protected zone where a part of that is also used by public as jungle park.
However, entry to Khajeer park needs permission of environment organization and it’s access road is through Babaie highway (at the end of highway). Inside Khajeer national park, some mammals such as ram and ewe, mountain goat and gazelle, boar and hyna are habitat. Vegetation coverage in this region is Persian turpentine trees.
This mountain is a part of central Alborz chain of mountains where overlooks Tehran city and highest peak in this chain is Touchal at 3966m . This area is very populated recreational region in province, because of vicinity to Tehran. Other than derived routes of this mountain, there are 5 main routes for hiking and climbing this mountain up to peak. Whereas mentioned below from east to west: Kolak chal, Darband, Darakeh, Tochal and Darband rout which starts from Darabad quarter and after passing Piazchall, it’s possible to reach Touchal.
Kolak chal shelter on the way to peak, this route is rather easy way to reach top of the mountain. Darband route starts from Sarband square at upper point of Darband square and includes the most difficult passage amongst 5 routes. However, this route is the most beautiful ones although is difficult. This route has 3 derived paths to reach top of Touchal and Shirpala shelter is in this route. Icehouse barrier and Sherwin wall are important points of these mountains as mountain climbings regards. Darakeh route starts from Darakeh square upper than Shahid Beheshti University and lead to peak by a slope with low gradient and pleasant hike. This route also is very beautiful route to hike to the top of the mountain Palangchal shelter is on this route. Touchal route is located at the end of Velenjak avenue and has gandola lift other than facility to climb mountain. This lift has seven stations and reach to vicinity of Touchal peak also provide very beautiful mountain views in front of visitors eyes. Skiers also can enjoy it’s piste.
This jungle park has area of 950 hectare and a structure of hills and dales, where is accounted as largest jungle parks of Tehran. Park is divided into two east & west regions. Park’s main vegetation coverage is consisted of needle leaves species. Regarding broad leaved trees, it’s worth to point to locust tree, ash tree and maple. Khalij Fars Shohada artificial lake with area of 100 hectares developed inside limits of this park (the best access route of this lake is via Hemmat highway)
This park has facilities such as restaurant, buffet, cycle track, skate and horse riding. Most of these facilities are located at eastern part of park and western part is mostly intact and jungle zone in a part of this park which is named “Mishehzar", some species of oreal rams are kept inside fances. Throughout of the park, there are alcoves for temporary stay.
There is a structure on this hill where Jack Demorgan who investigates that believes this building is Bahram Goore fire temple and its oldness returns to Sassanian era. In Tabary history book; it is stated that "In Ray there was a fire temple which was the oldest." Height of Mail hill is 18m compare to plain of it’s circumference and its width is 25m, having 20m length.
Fire temple of this hill is built of stone, brick, mudand mortr of lime and ash (sarooj). A part of Rai fire temple was ruined during Alexander invasion of Iran. Now, two arches are remained from fire temple structure existing reed bed around the hill is evidence of a lake which was located in this place at old times. However, it was dried in the course of times.
One of the grandsons of Imam Hassan Mojtaba (PBUH) who was martyr at third hijra century and buried in this place. Central part of monument was constructed at same early decade and other structures were added to this complex later. Main portal and entrance was built by order of Alebooyeh king.
This complex consisted of tomb of Abdul Azim, porticoes, mosque, porches and two tomb of Imam’s sons Hammzeh who is Imam Reza’s (PBUH) brother and Taher one of Imam Sajjad’s (PBUH) son also are in this place.
Up to Ahar village, it can be taken by car and after this village, the remaining distant must be taken on foot beside gardens of Ahar villag, through a green valley. This takes about one hour. Shekarab district is one of summer regions in South Alborz Mountains where because of numerous water sources and beautiful waterfall is always of interest.
This route for hiking in a day is very suitable because it’s near Tehran. Water from this waterfall pours into Jajroud River.
There are two straits in this region where after passing first strait for 2 km, the second one appears. In order to pass these straits, it’s necessary to take the path of river located between two straits which is a very interesting point. It’s a very narrow gorge with tall walls. Second strait is located after a beautiful plain where at the end of plain, vashi waterfall with 15m height can be seen. Down the waterfall, a pond is developed. In this strait an embossed pattern is on a stone wall which is a relic of Fathali Shah Era.
Dimensions of this work are 6m x 7m. In this stone work an image of Fathali Shah in hunting deer together with countries where name of each one is carved on stone at the side of each person. On the top of these stone tableau four rows and at bottom of it two rows epigraphs demonstrate events of Fathali Shah era together with Quran verses and poems in lithography writing considering mountainous environment and cold climate of region. The best visit season of this place is late spring and summer time.
There are two routes are at the upper district of Howir village where one of them goes toward Tar and other one goes in direction of Howir lake mountainous roads where become dusty at some parts are developed in these regions. Four wheel cars are better to take these routes. These two lakes are 500m apart each other and are mountain lakes with fresh water at height of 2900m.
Tar lake is large and has a total area of 7 km because of notable height of lakes, there are not any vegetation coverage or forest around them. These lakes have red spotted trout, rainbow trout and yellow fish and provide suitable conditions for fishing. The best visit time of this district is June.
It takes 15 minutes walk on 60 degree slop and a dirty foot made path to reach large and hidden opening of cave from parking lot. Height of cave’s opening is 2050m from sea level, and height of entrance opening of cave is 29m where it’s large entrance is third largest in Iran’s caves. Height of inside route of cave is enough to walk conveniently within cave. High humidity of inside the cave developed numerous collections of cauliflower type lime sediments other than huge lime columns.
This cave has two galleries which make it significant amongst Iran’s cave. After 300m walk into the cave on main passing way by using a ladder at left hand side it’s possible to climb and enter a part of this cave which is known as Anahita gallery, where has a permanent water pond and lime columns and very beautiful stalactites (Anahita is name of a Goddess who was water guard). Cave has bats and because of this main paths of cave are slippery. Entry to this cave and walking inside do not need mountain climbing or spelunker’s equipment but hiking inside the cave is difficult for old people and children and needs agility. Cave has not any tourism facilities and in order to enter the cave having a flash light is needed. This natural relic is registered in list of Iran’s national relics.
This dam is constructed over Lar river and become operation in 1361 where maintain a part of Tehran water. Spring and summer are suitable seasons for visiting this district. In spring, it’s corn poppy flowers spread throughout region’s plains and make a beautiful natural scene. Lake is suitable for fishing and has red spotted trout.
There is not any leisure facility around this lake.