Yazd is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran. The city is located 270 km (170 mi) southeast of Esfahan. Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd has a unique Persian architecture. It is nicknamed the “City of Windcatchers” (Shahr-e Badgirha) from its many examples. It is also very well known for its Zoroastrian fire temples, ab anbars, qanats, yakhchals, Persian handicrafts, handwoven cloth (Persian termeh), silk weaving, Persian Cotton Candy, and its time-honored confectioneries. Yazd has a history of over 5,000 years, dating back to the time of the Median empire, when it was known as Ysatis or Issatis. The present city name, however, is derived from Yazdegerd I, a Sassanid ruler of Persia. Because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of access, Yazd remained largely immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those fleeing from destruction in other parts of Persian Empire during the Mongol invasion. In 1272 it was visited by Marco Polo, who remarked on the city’s fine silk-weaving industry. In the book The Travels of Marco Polo, he described Yazd in the following way: It is a good and noble city, and has a great amount of trade. They weave there quantities of a certain silk tissue known as Yasdi, which merchants carry into many quarters to dispose of. When you leave this city to travel further, you ride for seven days over great plains, finding harbour to receive you at three places only. There are many fine woods producing dates upon the way, such as one can easily ride through; and in them there is great sport to be had in hunting and hawking, there being partridges and quails and abundance of other game, so that the merchants who pass that way have plenty of diversion. There are also wild asses, handsome creatures. At the end of those seven marches over the plain, you come to a fine kingdom which is called Kerman.
Oldness of this house returns to Qajar era founder of that is a person called Seyyed Hossein Abarghoei. This house is located in old tissue of the city and to reach that many beautiful alleys must be passed. In vicinity of house, there are beautiful corridors Covered passage ways. Area of house is 820 and built area is 528 . There is a court yard at center and rooms are placed around the courtyard.
This house has very beautiful embellishments such as delicate moldings a mocarabe. Of distinct features of this house are it’s wind trap and dais. It’s wind trap is developed in two stories and has 18m height. Gross section of first wind trap is also 18m. Dais also is located at corner and has very delicate moldings.
This desert includes many dunes with greate expansion where is among interesting and seeable places of city.
The same shifting sand has made interesting and worth seeing dunes in villages of Hassanabad, Ghahroum road and Mobarakeh county.
It’s height is more than 20m and it’s water is maintain from resources of Shirkooh in spring early summer. Waterfall is located in a vally with green trees where is different from Yazd province’s natural appearance. By considering desert climate of Yazd province, this different nature is beautiful and a blessing other feature of this waterfall is it’s surrounding rocks where some times are used for rock climbing.
Some derivative valleys also are available in this region where are suitable for rock mountain climbing. Environment of around waterfall is one of recreational place in province.
This is an historical very antique spring. A concave bowl shape form over the location of spring which is dug by hand, three triangular towers at the above spring mountain with more than four thousand years oldness which is Anahita temple graves where from those stone dishes, items and symbols of Venus worship and thousands of relics were discovered, all state the ancient history of this region where is belonged to Parthian era.
There are also some fish in this spring which are known as Koor fish. Spring water and other flowing waters of it’s vicinity make a small lake. Around this spring landscape was developed in order to be facility and recreational place for interested visitors, thus the region is one of the recreational places of province. This ancient region is registered in Iran’s ancient relics list.
In native language, it’s called Naranj castle. This castle is one of the buildings where was constructed before Islam has functionality after Islam as well also some parts appended to original structure. This hill is 25m higher than ground level and has an area of about four hectares. It’s architecture is multi level in 5 levels and most of it’s parts are vanished by erosions. It’s architectural form mostly recalls Sassanian era. Upper levels of structure have more patterns and forms of after Islam architecture where is evidence of castle functionality in later periods. In native language, it’s called Naranj castle.
This castle is one of the buildings where was constructed before Islam has functionality after Islam as well also some parts appended to original structure. This hill is 25m higher than ground level and has an area of about four hectares. It’s architecture is multi level in 5 levels and most of it’s parts are vanished by erosions. It’s architectural form mostly recalls Sassanian era. Upper levels of structure have more patterns and forms of after Islam architecture where is evidence of castle functionality in later periods.
This complex is constructed in ninth century A.H. at timurid era by order of Amir Jalalodeen Chakhmagh Shami who had been assigned as Yazd governor, where his wife Fatemeh Kahtoon assisted him. Complex encompasses structures such as Amir Chakhmagh mosque or Noo Principal Mosque, tomb of Setti Fatemeh, Amir Chakhmagh Takiyeh, school, Haji Ghanbar bazaar, abbey, palm and cistern.
A square under the same name is located at north of mosque where is considered as center of Yazd city. Cistern Haji Ghanbar bazaar where are located behind Takiyeh were built at priods after demise of Amir Chakhmagh. Shabestan of mosque is located at south part of that and is consisted of center main court and two porticoes at both sides. Main alter has mocarabe with moaragh mosaics and encompasses four times of each terms as Allah, Mohammad, Ali in Kufic script. Dome of mosque is curved and holds row patterns covered with green color mosaics. Around dome wording of "Al Soltan Zel Allah" is repeated.
This monument was built in 1313 S.H. by endeavors of Zoroastrian. At entrance of building, there is a large circular pond where reflects Forouhar statue and building’s stone capitals on water surface. Room of preserving sacred fire is build at center of complex where around that, some chambers for benedictions are placed. Architectural form of this fire temple is influenced by fire temples of Indian Parthian.
Importance of this fire temple for Zoroastrian is it’s fire because this fire that they call it Varahram has been brought in this place from Nahid Pars fire temple about 1500 years ago and still has flame while never extinguished. However, the same fire has been placed in several fire temples, before construction of this fire temple. This place is a point of assembly for Yazd’s Zoroastrians and their rituals. Many interested people visit this fire temple while visiting Yazd city.
This monument has been constructed in 631 A. H. by order of Ziaodeen Hossain Razi and completed by his two sons in 705 A.H. This structure where some thought to be Alexander prison actually was place of training in 700 years ago. This building has been constructed with raw sun dried bricks and has not any mosaic embellishments. It has a very short entrance door and plain elevation. Height of it’s dome is 18 m it’s diameter is 9.5m.
School Shabestan has altar and there are some built porticoes around courtyard of school. A well with 8m depth is developed in school so as to access to water. Unfortunately, this school was in ignorance for many years and used as cow house or oil extracting place where after revolution it was repaired and enlisted in Iran’s national relics list, special category of remnants from Mongols era. There developed a large trench at location of it’s well, thus it’s probable because of this trench it’s called Alexander prison.
This building has been constructed at Qajar era by order of Mirza Mohammad Moustofi governor of Yazd at Nasseraldeen Shah period. This complex is consisted of garden, mansion, hammam, cistern, covered corridors and caravanserai. The most important element of this garden is it’s mansion where has area of 1400 in three stroreys including portico, porch, quartan corridors, dome, vertical, rooms and mantel piece.
It’s carvansarai was a place of staying for numerous caravans that pass desert. Another parts of this historical place are rest locations and area for merchants to interchange their goods. Hammam also is seeable and includes circular cloak room, two ortagonal courts with root lights at it’s ceiling washing pool.
This castle has been constructed at Sassanian era and had functionality even at after Islam periods. Oldness of Kharanegh is more than Yazd city in some references. Area of castle is about 1 hectare and is built of mud sun dried brick. Function of this castle had been residential and is full of curved alleys where every new comer will lose way.
This castle has been residential since a few years ago and people gradually left the castle and resided in new tissue of village. There are a mosque in this castle and also a trembling minaret in one of it’s courtyards to Saljuk era and it’s brick work is a beautiful feature of minaret. Minaret has 15m height from roof of mosque. Beside castle, there is a caravanserai from Safavid era where currently become residential place by private sector.
This mosque is the oldest even most ancient mosque of Iran where it’s oldness returns to first century A.H. Regarding antiquity construction of this mosque is only comparable with Damghan Tarikhaneh. This mosque is built of sun dried brick and mud where it’s structure preserve it’s original design without any change. It’s design is adapted by Sassanian era’s buildings.
Mosque has not dome, embellishments or mosaic works but while it is plain, has special greatness. It’s single minaret was attached to original structure in third century A.H. Main difference of Fahraj mosque and Tarikhaneh is that Fahraj still has it’s original functionality.